Records Added in March 2023
Records added in March 2023
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Showing records 101 to 125 of 12968. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Last
Optimal Selection of Time-Current Characteristic of Overcurrent Protection for Induction Motors in Drives of Mining Machines with Prolonged Starting Time
Jarosław Joostberens, Adam Heyduk, Sergiusz Boron, Andrzej Bauerek
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: electric safety, fan, induction motor, overcurrent protection
The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of mine power network impedance on the starting time of induction motors, as well as on the operation of overcurrent protection relay. Proper selection of the time-current characteristic of overcurrent protection is crucial for the operation of the drive. A specific feature of mining power grids is their high impedance, which results from long cable lines with relatively small cross-sections. This causes relatively large voltage drops and significantly reduces the starting torque of the motor. Reduced starting torque increases the starting time and intensifies the motor overheating. This study analyzes a series of standardized time-current characteristics used in Invertim company protection devices. A simulation study of startup current and starting time was conducted for an exemplary medium-power motor with a large inertia fan at different values of power supply voltage below the rated value. Parameters of the motor equivalent circuit we... [more]
Dynamic Characteristics of Crude Oil Price Fluctuation—From the Perspective of Crude Oil Price Influence Mechanism
Jiaying Peng, Zhenghui Li, Benjamin M. Drakeford
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: crude oil price fluctuation, evolution characteristics, price influence mechanism
The uncertainty in the evolution of crude oil price fluctuation has a significant impact on economic stability. Based on the decomposition of crude oil price fluctuation by the state-space model, this paper studies the fluctuation trend of crude oil prices and its causes. The nonlinearity autoregressive distribute lag approach (NARDL) model is used to capture the influence mechanism characteristics of crude oil prices at different positions and different fluctuation trends. An event study model with dummy variables is constructed to compare the effects of different types of events on crude oil price fluctuations. The empirical results indicate that the fluctuation of crude oil prices tends to strengthen on the whole, and there is a remarkable correlation between this trend and the influencing mechanism of crude oil price, namely, the fluctuation source structure. The influence mechanism of crude oil price fluctuation is asymmetric when the crude oil price is at different positions and... [more]
A Universal Mathematical Model of Modular Multilevel Converter with Half-Bridge
Ming Liu, Zetao Li, Xiaoliu Yang
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: modular multilevel converter (MMC), nearest level modulation (NLM), switching state, total harmonic distortion (THD), universal mathematical model (UMM)
Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) play an important role in the power electronics industry due to their many advantages, such as modularity and reliability. In the current research, the simulation method is used to study the system. However, with the increasing number of sub-modules (SMs), it is difficult to model and simulate the system. In order to overcome these difficulties, this paper presents a universal mathematical model (UMM) of MMC using half-bridge cells as SMs. The UMM is a full-scale model with switching state, capacitance, inductance, and resistance characteristics. This method can calculate any number of SMs, and it does not need to build a simulation model (SIM) of physical MMC—in particular, parametric design can be realized. Compared with the SIM, the accuracy of the proposed UMM is verified, and the computational efficiency of the UMM is 8.7 times higher than the simulation method. Finally, by utilizing the proposed UMM method, the influence of the parameters of M... [more]
Experimental Research on Aftertreatment SCR Sizing Strategy for a Nonroad Mid−Range Diesel Engine
Lu Xie, Guozhang Jiang, Feng Qian
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aftertreatment, Diesel engine, NH3 slip, NOx emissions, SCR sizing strategy
Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is widely used to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. This paper presents a comprehensive experimental research work on aftertreatment emissions of NOx and ammonia (NH3) slip for three aftertreatment concepts by introducing the SCR sizing strategy on a 6-cylinder mid-range non-exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) diesel engine to meet China non-road Stage IV regulation limits. It can be observed that the three concepts could meet the regulation limits for NOx emissions and NH3 slip by selecting the appropriate length. There is little effect on emission results during a non-road transient cycle (NRTC) when the aftertreatment inlet/outlet with insulation and without insulation and the emission results on both strategies could meet non-road China Stage IV regulation limits. It is recommended to select Concept 2 which could meet regulation requirements considering multiple factors in the SCR sizing strategy. Substrate impact and NH3/NOx molar ratio (A... [more]
Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis of Residential Energy Consumption from Economic Growth during 2000−2017: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Guangdong, China
Yong Yang, Junsong Jia, Adam T. Devlin, Yangming Zhou, Dongming Xie, Min Ju
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: decoupling effort, LMDI, residential energy consumption, Tapio decoupling model, urban and rural Guangdong
Residential energy consumption (REC) is now the second largest energy sector in China. However, decoupling analysis of REC has not received enough attention. Here, we explore the decoupling relationship between REC and economic growth in urban and rural Guangdong from 2000 to 2017. First, we use the Tapio decoupling model to study the decoupling state. Then, key drivers affecting the decoupling were explored by combining the Tapio decoupling model with the Log-mean Divisa Index (LMDI) method. Finally, the decoupling efforts were evaluated by using the decoupling efforts model. The main results are as follows: (1) The decoupling state in urban regions was better than that in rural regions. Urban regions experienced weak decoupling (WD) in most years during 2000−2017, while expansive negative decoupling (END) mostly was seen in rural regions. (2) The per capita income effect was the most important driver inhibiting decoupling in Guangdong urban and rural regions. The energy intensity eff... [more]
Performance Comparison between Two Established Microgrid Planning MILP Methodologies Tested On 13 Microgrid Projects
Michael Stadler, Zack Pecenak, Patrick Mathiesen, Kelsey Fahy, Jan Kleissl
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: data reduction, DER, DER-CAM, full time-series optimization, Microgrid, MILP, Optimization, Planning, run-time, XENDEE
Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimization algorithms provide accurate and clear solutions for Microgrid and Distributed Energy Resources projects. Full-scale optimization approaches optimize all time-steps of data sets (e.g., 8760 time-step and higher resolutions), incurring extreme and unpredictable run-times, often prohibiting such approaches for effective Microgrid designs. To reduce run-times down-sampling approaches exist. Given that the literature evaluates the full-scale and down-sampling approaches only for limited numbers of case studies, there is a lack of a more comprehensive study involving multiple Microgrids. This paper closes this gap by comparing results and run-times of a full-scale 8760 h time-series MILP to a peak preserving day-type MILP for 13 real Microgrid projects. The day-type approach reduces the computational time between 85% and almost 100% (from 2 h computational time to less than 1 min). At the same time the day-type approach keeps the objective... [more]
Study on Fast Cold Start-Up Method of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Based on Electric Heating Technology
Wei Jiang, Ke Song, Bailin Zheng, Yongchuan Xu, Ruoshi Fang
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cold start-up, electrothermal film, multi-phase flow, proton exchange membrane, proton exchange membrane fuel cell
In order to realize the low temperature and rapid cold start-up of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack, a dynamic model containing 40 single proton exchange membrane fuel cells is established to estimate the melting time of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack as well as to analyze the melting process of the ice by using the obtained liquid−solid boundary. The methods of proton exchange membrane electric heating and electrothermal film heating are utilized to achieve cold start-up of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The fluid simulation software fluent is used to simulate and analyze the process of melting ice. The solidification and melting model and multi-phase flow model are introduced. The pressure-implicit with splitting of operators algorithm is also adopted. The results show that both the proton exchange membrane electric heating technology and the electrothermal film heating method can achieve rapid cold start-up. The interior ice of the proton exc... [more]
Performance Analysis and Optimization of Power Density Enhanced PMSM with Magnetic Stripe on Rotor
Wenlong Wei, Jinping Zhang, Jin Yao, Siqi Tang, Shiyou Zhang
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: air gap proportional coefficient, novel rotor structure with magnetic stripe, PMSM, power density
A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has advantages in applications such as electric vehicles and all-electric-aircraft because of its inherent characteristics of high power density. In order to further improve its power density, this paper proposes a novel rotor structure with a magnetic stripe, based on the “dual stator + Halbach array” topology of the PMSM, which leads to a PMSM with greater power density. Then, this paper proposes characteristic parameters such as the external air gap proportional coefficient K1 and the internal air gap proportional coefficient K2 of the novel rotor structure, and establishes the torque analysis model of the novel rotor structure and the corresponding motor. Simulation results show that the novel rotor structure can increase the average torque. Then, this paper establishes an optimization model, in which K1 and K2 are taken as optimization variables, a torque fluctuation of no more than 5% is set as a constraint, and the maximum average torq... [more]
An Experimental Study on the Fire Spread Rate and Separation Distance between Facing Stores in Passage-Type Traditional Markets
Hong-Seok Yun, Dong-Gun Nam, Cheol-Hong Hwang
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: fire spread rate, maximum heat release rate, radiant heat flux, separation distance, traditional market
Real-scale fire experiments were conducted to understand the fire spread characteristics of the major combustibles handled in traditional markets, a space with high fire risk. The major combustibles were selected through field surveys administered at a number of traditional markets. Through real-scale fire experiments, the horizontal fire spread rate according to the maximum heat release rate of major combustibles was examined. In addition, the separation distance to prevent fire spread to the facing store by radiant heat transfer was examined. As a result of the experiments, it was confirmed that the arrangement method of the combustibles causes a large change in the maximum heat release rate, fire growth rate, and fire spread rate. The horizontal fire spread rate showed a linear proportional relationship with respect to the maximum heat release rate regardless of the type of combustibles, and a correlation to define the relationship was proposed. A correlation equation for predicting... [more]
Windcatcher Louvers to Improve Ventilation Efficiency
Young Kwon Yang, Min Young Kim, Yong Woo Song, Sung Ho Choi, Jin Chul Park
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: building ventilation efficiency, Computational Fluid Dynamics, indoor thermal comfort, windcatcher louver
Windcatcher louvers are designed to capture air flowing outside a building in order to increase its natural ventilation. There are no studies that have designed the shape of the louver to increase the natural ventilation efficiency of the building. This study aimed to conduct a computational fluid dynamics simulation and mock-up test of a Clark Y airfoil-type windcatcher louver designed to increase the natural ventilation in a building. The following test results were obtained. The optimal angle of attack of the airfoil was calculated via a numerical analysis, which demonstrated that the wind speed was at its highest when the angle of attack was 8°; further, flow separation occurred at angles exceeding 8°, at which point the wind speed began to decrease. The results of the mock-up test demonstrated that the time required to reduce the concentration of fine particles in the indoor air was 120 s shorter when the windcatcher was installed than when it was not, which indicating that the ti... [more]
A Comprehensive Overview in Control Algorithms for High Switching-Frequency LLC Resonant Converter
Hwa-Pyeong Park, Mina Kim, Jee-Hoon Jung
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: control algorithm, DC-DC power conversion, dynamic performance, electro-magnetic interference, LLC resonant converter, output voltage regulation, power conversion efficiency
An LLC resonant converter has been widely used in various industrial applications because of its high cost-effectiveness, high power conversion efficiency, simple design methodology, and simple control algorithms using a pulse frequency modulation (PFM). In addition, the soft switching capability of the LLC resonant converter is good to obtain high switching frequency operations, which can get the high-power density of the power converter. Over the past years, several studies have been conducted to improve the performance of a high switching frequency LLC resonant converter with resonant tank design, optimal power stage design, and enhanced control algorithms. This paper is the review paper in terms of the control algorithms for the LLC resonant converter. It focuses on the overview of the high switching-frequency LLC resonant converter in terms of the control algorithms. The advanced control algorithm can improve power conversion efficiency, dynamic performance, tight output voltage r... [more]
Decentralized versus Clustered Microgrids: An Energy Systems Study for Reliable Off-Grid Electrification of Small Islands
Olivia Francesca B. Agua, Robert Joseph A. Basilio, Mc Erschad D. Pabillan, Michael T. Castro, Philipp Blechinger, Joey D. Ocon
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: clustered microgrids, decentralized microgrids, Diesel, lithium-ion, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solar photovoltaics
Philippine off-grid islands are mostly electrified by diesel generators, resulting in costly electricity that is interrupted by fuel supply disruptions. The archipelagic nature of the country also impedes off-grid electrification due to the high capital cost of grid extension. Transitioning from diesel-only systems to hybrid renewable energy systems and interconnecting the island microgrids can solve these problems while promoting cleaner energy production. In this work, a comparative study on decentralized and clustered hybrid renewable energy system microgrids in the Polillo group of islands in the Philippines, using HOMER Pro, was performed. Microgrids comprising solar photovoltaics, lithium-ion battery energy storage, and diesel generators were designed on each island. Clustered systems encompassing multiple islands in the island group were simulated by also considering the least-cost interconnection paths. The techno-economics of each decentralized or clustered system and the four... [more]
Thermodynamic and Economic Feasibility of Energy Recovery from Pressure Reduction Stations in Natural Gas Distribution Networks
Piero Danieli, Gianluca Carraro, Andrea Lazzaretto
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: economic analysis, energy recovery, natural gas distribution network, natural gas engineering, natural gas expander
A big amount of the pressure energy content in the natural gas distribution networks is wasted in throttling valves of pressure reduction stations (PRSs). Just a few energy recovery systems are currently installed in PRSs and are mostly composed of radial turboexpanders coupled with cogeneration internal combustion engines or gas-fired heaters providing the necessary preheating. This paper clarifies the reason for the scarce diffusion of energy recovery systems in PRSs and provides guidelines about the most feasible energy recovery technologies. Nine thousand PRSs are monitored and allocated into 12 classes, featuring different expansion ratios and available power. The focus is on PRSs with 1-to-20 expansion ratio and 1-to-500 kW available power. Three kinds of expanders are proposed in combination with different preheating systems based on boilers, heat pumps, or cogeneration engines. The goal is to identify, for each class, the most feasible combination by looking at the minimum payb... [more]
Statistical Evaluation of Pilot’s Behavior Models Parameters Connected to Military Flight Training
Miroslav Jirgl, Jan Boril, Rudolf Jalovecky
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: flight simulator, Matlab, McRuer models, pilot’s behavior, reaction delay
The paper discusses the possibilities of objective assessment of military flight training quality based on statistical evaluation of pilot’s behavior models parameters. For these purposes, the pilots’ responses to non-standard flight situations were measured by using a fixed-base and a moving-base engineering flight simulator. Tens of military pilots at different training stages were tested. By exploiting real-life tests, we established that the given pilot models provide sufficiently accurate approximation of realistic human responses. Importantly, the models are relatively easy to use, and the individual parameters can be unambiguously interpreted, i.e., the time constants of the pilot behavior model are obtainable, representing the pilot’s current psychological and physiological state of mind. The parameters lay in the defined ranges, and they characterize the ability of the human/pilot to adapt to a controlled dynamic system. Consequently, a fundamental statistical analysis based o... [more]
Failure Behavior and Damage Characteristics of Coal at Different Depths under Triaxial Unloading Based on Acoustic Emission
Anlin Zhang, Ru Zhang, Mingzhong Gao, Zetian Zhang, Zheqiang Jia, Zhaopeng Zhang, Ersheng Zha
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: acoustic emission (AE), Coal, crack classification, damage, different depths, failure behavior, mining disturbance
The depth effect of coal mechanical behavior seriously affects the safety and efficiency of deep coal mining. To explore the differences in failure behavior and damage characteristics of coal masses at different depths during the coal mining process, based on the consideration of in situ stress environment, physical properties, and mining disturbance of coal seams, triaxial unloading experiments with acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were conducted on coal samples at four different depths taken from the Pingdingshan coal mine area. The results showed that the AE activity of deep coal was more concentrated, and the cumulative AE energy of coal increased with increasing depth. The cumulative AE energy of the 1050-m coal sample was 69 times that of the 300-m coal sample. The b value representing the microcrack scale decreased with increasing depth, and the rupture degree of deep coal increased. The cracking mode of coal was classified and the failure behavior was analyzed. The cumulative... [more]
Hybrid Modulation for Modular Voltage Source Inverters with Coupled Reactors
Krzysztof Jakub Szwarc, Pawel Szczepankowski, Janusz Nieznański, Cezary Swinarski, Alexander Usoltsev, Ryszard Strzelecki
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: 12-pulse, coupled reactors, modular, multipulse, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), pulse width modulation (PWM), three-level, voltage source inverter (VSI)
This paper proposes and discusses a concept of a hybrid modulation for the control of modular voltage source inverters with coupled reactors. The use of coupled reactors as the integrating elements leads to significant reduction in the size and weight of the circuit. The proposed modulation combines novel coarsely quantized pulse amplitude modulation (CQ-PAM) and innovative space-vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). The former enjoys very low transistor switching frequency and low harmonic elimination, while the latter ensures high resolution of amplitude control. The SVPWM is based on the use of barycentric coordinates. The feasibility of the proposed solution is verified by simulations and laboratory tests of a 12-pulse modular voltage source inverters with two-level and three-level component inverters.
Hydrocracking of C5-Isolated Asphaltene and Its Fractions in Batch and Semi-Batch Reactors
Ngoc Thuy Nguyen, Ki Hyuk Kang, Pill Won Seo, Narae Kang, Duy Van Pham, Chiwoong Ahn, Gyoo Tae Kim, Sunyoung Park
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: asphaltenes, dispersed catalyst, slurry-phase hydrocracking, vacuum residue
Non-catalytic and catalytic hydrocracking of C5-isolated asphaltene and its subfractions were performed in batch and semi-batch reactors at various temperatures. Catalyst and H2 played an important role in the hydrocracking of asphaltenes. In the batch system, the catalyst enhanced asphaltene conversion to light liquid products and suppressed coke formation. The coke formation was controlled at a low reaction temperature, but the reaction rate was too low. Light liquid products were also formed at the beginning of the reaction even at high temperatures, but the coke formation was predominant as the reaction time went on due to the decrease in H2 amount in the reactor. To solve these problems, H2 was continuously supplied during the reaction using the semi-batch system. Sufficient supply of H2 improved the conversion of asphaltenes to light liquid products while inhibiting the coke formation. The lightest asphaltene fraction was easily cracked into light products by inhibiting the coke... [more]
Breakdown at Multiple Protrusions in SF6 and CO2
Odd Christian Feet, Martin Seeger, Daniel Over, Kaveh Niayesh, Frank Mauseth
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, gaseous breakdown, SF6, statistical enlargement laws, surface roughness
The electric breakdown at single and multiple protrusions in SF6 and CO2 is investigated at 0.4 and 0.6 MPa, respectively. Additionally, the breakdown fields at rough surfaces of two different areas were determined. From the measurements, breakdown probability distributions for single protrusions were determined and fitted by Weibull distributions. This allowed the determination of statistical enlargement laws for the 50% breakdown probability fields E50. Such enlargement laws describe, for example, the scaling of breakdown field with electrode area or number of protrusions. The predictions were compared to the experimental data, and both agreement and discrepancies were observed depending on polarity and number of protrusions and gas. Discharge predictions including first electron, streamer inception and crossing, as well as leader propagation, gave further insight to this. It was found that predictions from enlargement laws based on statistical processes may not describe the measured... [more]
Comparison of the Effects of Industrial Demand Side Management and Other Flexibilities on the Performance of the Energy System
Arjuna Nebel, Christine Krüger, Tomke Janßen, Mathieu Saurat, Sebastian Kiefer, Karin Arnold
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: demand response, demand-side management, dispatch, flexibility, heat storage, renewable energy system, sector coupling, storage
In order to ensure security of supply in a future energy system with a high share of volatile electricity generation, flexibility technologies are needed. Industrial demand-side management ranks as one of the most efficient flexibility options. This paper analyses the effect of the integration of industrial demand-side management through the flexibilisation of aluminium electrolysis and other flexibilities of the electricity system and adjacent sectors. The additional flexibility options include electricity storage, heat storage in district heating networks, controlled charging of electric vehicles, and buffer storage in hydrogen electrolysis. The utilisation of the flexibilities is modelled in different settings with an increasing share of renewable energies, applying a dispatch model. This paper compares which contributions the different flexibilities can make to emission reduction, avoidance of curtailment, and reduction of fuel and CO2 costs, and which circumstances contribute to a... [more]
Implementing Discrete Model of Photovoltaic System on the Embedded Platform for Real-Time Simulation
Aryuanto Soetedjo, Irrine Budi Sulistiawati
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: buck converter, discrete model, embedded system, MPPT, photovoltaic, solar tracker
This paper presents the development of a discrete model of a photovoltaic (PV) system consisting of a PV panel, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), a dual-axis solar tracker, and a buck converter. The discrete model is implemented on a 32-bit embedded system. The goal of the developed discrete PV model is to provide an efficient way for evaluating several algorithms and models used by the PV system in real-time fashion. The proposed discrete model perfectly matches the continuous and discrete model simulated with MATLAB-SIMULINK. The real-time performance is tested by running the model to simulate the PV system, where the fastest time sampling of 1 ms is achieved by the buck converter model, while the longest time sampling of 100 ms is achieved by the solar tracker model. Moreover, a novel method is proposed to optimize the net energy, which is calculated by subtracting the energy consumed by the tracker from the PV energy generated. The proposed net energy optimization method varies... [more]
Investigation of an Inset Micro Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Soft Magnetic Composite Material
Da-Chen Pang, Zhen-Jia Shi, Pei-Xuan Xie, Hua-Chih Huang, Gia-Thinh Bui
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: inset permanent magnet synchronous motor, micromotor, silicon steel, soft magnetic composite
This paper presents the world’s smallest inset permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with a soft magnetic composite (SMC) core, providing ease of manufacturing for micromachine applications without silicon steel laminations. The inset motor can offer an additional reluctance torque and higher torque density with a lower usage amount of permanent magnet. A 15 mm diameter inset motor was developed with the thickness of a tile-type permanent magnet which is limited to 1 mm by the manufacturer. The motor was designed with high torque density and low torque ripple by varying the interpole iron width for the rotor. Two inset motors were made using both SMC and silicon steel materials for comparison. The performance of the SMC motor was inferior to the silicon steel motor, but it still meets the specifications of the commercial market. If the thickness of the tile-type permanent magnet is further reduced, the micro inset motor with a SMC core can be easily mass-manufactured using powder s... [more]
Expression of VHb Improved Lipid Production in Rhodosporidium toruloides
Shuang Wang, Rasool Kamal, Yue Zhang, Renhui Zhou, Liting Lv, Qitian Huang, Siriguleng Qian, Sufang Zhang, Zongbao Kent Zhao
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: microbial lipids, oxygen supply, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Vitreoscilla hemoglobin
The oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides has emerged as a robust host for production of microbial lipids as alternative biofuel feedstocks. Oxygen supply is a limiting factor for microbial lipid production, as lipid biosynthesis is highly oxygen-demanding. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) is a protein capable of promoting oxygen delivery for anabolism. In this study, we developed R. toruloides with VHb expression for improved lipid production. The VHb expression cassette was integrated into the R. toruloides chromosome via the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In shake flask cultures, the engineered strain 4#-13 produced 34% more lipids than the parental strain did. Results obtained under reduced aeration conditions in 3 L bioreactor showed that lipid titer and lipid yield of the engineered strain 4#-13 were 116% and 71%, respectively, higher than those of the parental strain. Under high cell density culture conditions, the engineered strain 4#-13 grew faster and produced 72% m... [more]
Particle-Scale Simulation of Solid Mixing Characteristics of Binary Particles in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed
Junjie Lin, Kun Luo, Shuai Wang, Liyan Sun, Jianren Fan
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: binary particles, bubbling fluidized bed, CFD-DEM, mixing characteristic
The behavior of solid mixing dynamic is of profound significance to the heat transfer and reaction efficiencies in energy engineering. In the current study, the solid mixing characteristics of binary particles in the bubbling fluidized bed are further revealed at particle-scale. Specifically, the influences of gas superficial velocity, Sauter mean diameter (SMD) in the system and the range distribution of particle sizes on the performance of mixing index are quantitatively explored using a computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) coupling model. The competition between solid segregation and the mixing of binary particles is deeply analyzed. There is a critical superficial velocity that maximizes the mixing index of the binary mixture in the bubbling fluidized bed. Solid mixing performs more aggressive when below the critical velocity, otherwise solid segregation overtakes mixing when above this critical velocity. Moreover, superficial velocity is a major factor af... [more]
Analysis of Standby Losses and Charging Cycles in Flywheel Energy Storage Systems
Mustafa E. Amiryar, Keith R. Pullen
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: aerodynamic windage loss, bearing friction loss, flywheel energy storage, flywheel standby loss, windage drag coefficient
Aerodynamic drag and bearing friction are the main sources of standby losses in the flywheel rotor part of a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). Although these losses are typically small in a well-designed system, the energy losses can become significant due to the continuous operation of the flywheel over time. For aerodynamic drag, commonly known as windage, there is scarcity of information available for loss estimation since most of the publications do not cover the partial vacuum conditions as required in the design of low loss energy storage flywheels. These conditions cause the flow regime to fall between continuum and molecular flow. Bearings may be of mechanical or magnetic type and in this paper the former is considered, typically hybridized with a passive magnetic thrust bearing. Mechanical bearing loss calculations have been extensively addressed in the open literature, including technical information from manufacturers but this has not previously been presented clearly a... [more]
A Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming Model for Optimal Reconfiguration of DC Distribution Feeders
O. D. Montoya, W. Gil-González, J. C. Hernández, D. A. Giral-Ramírez, A. Medina-Quesada
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: branch-to-node incidence matrix, direct current networks, general algebraic modelling system, mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, optimal reconfiguration of distribution grids
This paper deals with the optimal reconfiguration problem of DC distribution networks by proposing a new mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) formulation. This MINLP model focuses on minimising the power losses in the distribution lines by reformulating the classical power balance equations through a branch-to-node incidence matrix. The general algebraic modelling system (GAMS) is chosen as a solution tool, showing in tutorial form the implementation of the proposed MINLP model in a 6-nodes test feeder with 10 candidate lines. The validation of the MINLP formulation is performed in two classical 10-nodes DC test feeders. These are typically used for power flow and optimal power flow analyses. Numerical results demonstrate that power losses are reduced by about 16% when the optimal reconfiguration plan is found. The numerical validations are made in the GAMS software licensed by Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar.
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