Records Added in March 2023
Records added in March 2023
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Showing records 26 to 50 of 12968. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Last
The Effect of SMiShing Attack on Security of Demand Response Programs
Elif Ustundag Soykan, Mustafa Bagriyanik
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: demand response, risk analysis, security, smart grid, SMiShing, SMS phishing
Demand response (DR) is a vital element for a reliable and sustainable power grid. Consumer behavior is a key factor in the success of DR programs. In this study, we focus on how consumer reaction to Short Messaging Service (SMS) messages can disturb the demand response. We present a new type of threat to DR programs using SMS phishing attacks. We follow a holistic approach starting from a risk assessment focusing on DR programs’ notification message security following the Smart Grid Information Security (SGIS) risk methodology. We identify threats, conduct impact analysis, and estimate the likelihood of the attacks for various attacker types and motivations. We implemented deterministic and randomized attack scenarios to demonstrate the success of the attack using a state-of-the-art simulator on the IEEE European Low Voltage Feeder Test System. Simulations show that the attack results in local outages, which may lead to large-scale blackouts with the cascading effect on the power syst... [more]
Integration of Electric Vehicles in the Distribution Network: A Review of PV Based Electric Vehicle Modelling
Asaad Mohammad, Ramon Zamora, Tek Tjing Lie
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: energy management system, plug-in electric vehicle, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vehicle-to-grid
Electric vehicles (EVs) are one of a prominent solution for the sustainability issues needing dire attention like global warming, depleting fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Conversely, EVs are shown to emit higher emissions (measured from source to tailpipe) for the fossil fuel-based countries, which necessitates renewable energy sources (RES) for maximizing EV benefits. EVs can also act as a storage system, to mitigate the challenges associated with RES and to provide the grid with ancillary services, such as voltage regulation, frequency regulation, spinning reserve, etc. For extracting maximum benefits from EVs and minimizing the associated impact on the distribution network, modelling optimal integration of EVs in the network is required. This paper focuses on reviewing the state-of-the-art literature on the modelling of grid-connected EV-PV (photovoltaics) system. Further, the paper evaluates the uncertainty modelling methods associated with various parame... [more]
Thermal Analysis of Dry-Type Air-Core Coils for the Optimization of Passive Filtering Systems
Josué Rodríguez D., G. Alonso Orcajo, José M. Cano, Joaquín G. Norniella, Asier Vicente
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: dry-type air-core reactor, FEM, filter banks, hot rolling mill, power quality, power system harmonics, Steel, thermal protection
The analysis of harmonic currents in distribution networks of industrial facilities and the associated filtering stages is essential to optimize the production of these installations. Dry-type air-core reactors are one of the main elements of harmonic filter banks. A thermal analysis of these reactors in conventional steel plants and an evaluation of the criteria used to adjust the corresponding thermal protections are proposed in this paper. Accordingly, harmonic currents through the different filter branches are assessed. The proposed methodology builds a thermal magnetic model using the finite element method (FEM) whereby electromagnetic fields, currents and losses are emulated, to allow for recreating the actual coil temperature. The study aims at increasing the reliability of filtering systems by lowering the number of unscheduled shutdowns due to conservative adjustments of thermal protections.
Analysis of Contact Reaction Phenomenon between Aluminum−Silver and p+ Diffused Layer for n-Type c-Si Solar Cell Applications
Cheolmin Park, Sungyoon Chung, Nagarajan Balaji, Shihyun Ahn, Sunhwa Lee, Jinjoo Park, Junsin Yi
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ag/Al paste, contact formation, metallization, N-type bifacial solar cells, p+ emitter
In this study, the contact mechanism between Ag−Al and Si and the change in contact resistance (Rc) were analyzed by varying the firing profile. The front electrode of an n-type c-Si solar cell was formed through a screen-printing process using Ag−Al paste. Rc was measured by varying the belt speed and peak temperature of the fast-firing furnace. Rc value of 6.98 mΩ-cm−2 was obtained for an optimal fast-firing profile with 865 °C peak temperature and 110 inches per min belt speed. The contact phenomenon and the influence of impurities between the front-electrode−Si interface and firing conditions were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis revealed that the peak firing temperature at 865 °C exhibited a low atomic weight percentage of Al (0.72 and 0.36%) because Al was involved in the formation of alloy of Si with the front electrode. Based on the optimal results, a solar cell with a conversion efficiency of 1... [more]
The Method of Combating Coal Spontaneous Combustion Hazard in Goafs—A Case Study
Dawid Szurgacz, Magdalena Tutak, Jarosław Brodny, Leszek Sobik, Olga Zhironkina
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ash-water mixture, endogenous fire hazard, inertisation, spontaneous combustion of coal, underground mining
One of the major natural hazards occurring during the process of mining exploitation are endogenous fires. They cause very large material losses and constitute a threat to the health and life of the workers. Such fires usually start and develop in the goafs. The remaining coal and the oxygen-containing air flowing at a certain rate may lead to endogenous fires. The basic element of the assessment of the occurrence of an endogenous fire and the degree of its development is the chemical composition of the air flowing out of the longwall and the goafs. The monitoring of this composition also makes it possible to assess the severity of such a fire. The damage that can be caused by the endogenous fire requires scientific and experimental research being carried out on a wide scale in order to limit its occurrence and development. All papers and research mentioned in the paper aim to find a tool that will help to control the fires. The paper discusses the development of a new and original met... [more]
The Role of Hydrogen in Achieving Long Term Japanese Energy System Goals
Anshuman Chaube, Andrew Chapman, Yosuke Shigetomi, Kathryn Huff, James Stubbins
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: energy model, fuel cell, hydrogen economy, Japan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
This research qualitatively reviews literature regarding energy system modeling in Japan specific to the future hydrogen economy, leveraging quantitative model outcomes to establish the potential future deployment of hydrogen in Japan. The analysis focuses on the four key sectors of storage, supplementing the gas grid, power generation, and transportation, detailing the potential range of hydrogen technologies which are expected to penetrate Japanese energy markets up to 2050 and beyond. Alongside key model outcomes, the appropriate policy settings, governance and market mechanisms are described which underpin the potential hydrogen economy future for Japan. We find that transportation, gas grid supplementation, and storage end-uses may emerge in significant quantities due to policies which encourage ambitious implementation targets, investment in technologies and research and development, and the emergence of a future carbon pricing regime. On the other hand, for Japan which will init... [more]
Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Passenger Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Wan Rashidi Bin Wan Ramli, Apostolos Pesyridis, Dhrumil Gohil, Fuhaid Alshammari
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: HEV, hybrid electric vehicles, ORC, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, WHR
Electrification of road transport is a major step to solve the air quality problem and general environmental impact caused by the still widespread use of fossil fuels. At the same time, energy efficiency in the transport sector must be improved as a steppingstone towards a more sustainable future. Multiple waste heat recovery technologies are being investigated for low-temperature waste heat recovery. One of the technologies that is being considered for vehicle application is the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In this paper, the potential of ORC is discussed in detail for hybrid vehicle application. The modelling and testing of multiple systems such as the hybrid vehicle, engine, and ORC waste heat recovery are performed using the computational approach in GT-SUITE software environment correlated against available engine data. It was found that the maximum cycle efficiency achieved from the ORC system was 5.4% with 2.02 kW of delivered power recovered from the waste heat available. This... [more]
An Accurate State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Using a Combination of an Unscented Kalman Filter and a Particle Filter
Thanh-Tung Nguyen, Abdul Basit Khan, Younghwi Ko, Woojin Choi
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Lithium iron phosphate battery, particle filter, SOC estimation, unscented Kalman filter
An accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation of the battery is one of the most important techniques in battery-based power systems, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). The Kalman filter is a preferred algorithm in estimating the SOC of the battery due to the capability of including the time-varying coefficients in the model and its superior performance in the SOC estimation. However, since its performance highly depends on the measurement noise (MN) and process noise (PN) values, it is difficult to obtain highly accurate estimation results with the battery having a flat plateau OCV (open-circuit voltage) area in the SOC-OCV curve, such as the Lithium iron phosphate battery. In this paper, a new integrated estimation method is proposed by combining an unscented Kalman filter and a particle filter (UKF-PF) to estimate the SOC of the Lithium iron phosphate battery. The equivalent circuit of the battery used is composed of a series resistor and two R-C parall... [more]
Feasibility Study GaN Transistors Application in the Novel Split-Coils Inductive Power Transfer System with T-Type Inverter
Viktor Shevchenko, Bohdan Pakhaliuk, Oleksandr Husev, Oleksandr Veligorskyi, Deniss Stepins, Ryszard Strzelecki
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: AC-DC power converters, electromagnetic coupling, GaN-transistors, inductive power transmission, multilevel converter, T-type inverter, wireless power transfer
A promising solution for inductive power transfer and wireless charging is presented on the basis of a single-phase three-level T-type Neutral Point Clamped GaN-based inverter with two coupled transmitting coils. The article focuses on the feasibility study of GaN transistor application in the wireless power transfer system based on the T-type inverter on the primary side. An analysis of power losses in the main components of the system is performed: semiconductors and magnetic elements. System modeling was performed using Power Electronics Simulation Software (PSIM). It is shown that the main losses of the system are static losses in the filter inductor and rectifier diodes on the secondary side, while GaN transistors can be successfully used for the wireless power transfer system. The main features of the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design of GaN transistors are considered in advance.
Inter-Hour Forecast of Solar Radiation Based on the Structural Equation Model and Ensemble Model
Tingting Zhu, Yiren Guo, Cong Wang, Chao Ni
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: effectiveness estimation, ensemble model, solar radiation forecast, structural equation model
Given the wide applications of photovoltaic (PV) power generation, the volatility in generation caused by solar radiation, which limits the capacity of the power grid, cannot be ignored. Therefore, much research has aimed to address this issue through the development of methods for accurately predicting inter-hour solar radiation and then estimating PV power. However, most forecasting methods focus on adjusting the model structure or model parameters to achieve prediction accuracy. There is little research discussing how different factors influence solar radiation and, thereby, the effectiveness of these data-driven methods regarding their prediction accuracy. In this work, the effects of several potential factors on solar radiation are estimated using correlation analysis and a structural equation model; an ensemble model is developed for predicting inter-hour solar radiation based on the interaction of those key factors. Several experiments are carried out based on an open database p... [more]
An Assessment of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards for Passenger Cars in South Korea
Seungho Jeon, Minyoung Roh, Almas Heshmati, Suduk Kim
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards, Global Change Assessment Model
The shift in consumer preferences for large-sized cars has increased the energy intensity (EI) of passenger cars, while growth in battery electric vehicle (BEV) sales has decreased EI in recent years in South Korea. In order to lower passenger cars’ EI, the South Korean government has implemented the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards with a credit system, in which the sale of one energy-efficient car (for example, a BEV) can get multiple credits. This study analyzes CAFE standards in terms of both the EI improvement sensitivity scenarios and the degree of credits for BEVs and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) by using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). In this study, passenger cars include small, medium, and large sedans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), BEVs, and FCEVs. The findings of this study are as follows: First, from the policy design perspective, a proper setting of the credit system for BEVs and FCEVs is a v... [more]
A Variable Fractional Order Fuzzy Logic Control Based MPPT Technique for Improving Energy Conversion Efficiency of Thermoelectric Power Generator
N. Kanagaraj, Hegazy Rezk, Mohamed R. Gomaa
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Efficiency, fractional order control, fuzzy logic control, MPPT, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, thermoelectric generator, waste heat recovery
Thermoelectric generation technology is considered to be one of the viable methods to convert waste heat energy directly into electricity. The utilization of this technology has been impeded due to low energy conversion efficiency. This paper aims to improve the energy conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric generator (TEG) model with a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique. A variable fractional order fuzzy logic controller (VFOFLC)-based MPPT technique is proposed in the present work in which the operating point of the TEG is moved quickly towards an optimal position to increase the energy harvesting. The fraction order term α, introduced in the MPPT algorithm, will expand or contract the input domain of the fuzzy logic controller (FLC to shorten the tracking time and maintain a steady-state output around the maximum power point (MPP). The performance of the proposed MPPT technique was verified with the TEG model by simulation using MATLAB /SIMULINK software. Then,... [more]
Physical Model for Frequency Domain Spectroscopy of Oil−Paper Insulation in a Wide Temperature Range by a Novel Analysis Approach
Jiacheng Xie, Ming Dong, Boning Yu, Yizhuo Hu, Kaige Yang, Changjie Xia
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: frequency domain spectroscopy, insulation condition assessment, relaxation and conduction, wide temperature range
Frequency domain spectroscopy is considered to be a promising and novel method for the assessment of the insulation condition of power equipment. This work has practical significance as it explains the microscopic mechanism of this method in a wide temperature range and further establishes its quantitative model. To achieve this, in the present paper, we select oil-impregnated paper—one of the most common insulation materials for power equipment with a complex microstructure—as a test sample, deduce a formula based on the relationship between the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity to extract the spectra of independent dielectric processes and measure the frequency domain spectra of oil-impregnated paper under different temperatures, as well as its thermally stimulated depolarization current with a series of bias voltages. The analysis results reveal that oil-impregnated paper’s frequency domain spectra in a wide temperature range are mainly determined by dielectric pr... [more]
A Modified ABC-SQP-Based Combined Approach for the Optimization of a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle
S. N. Shivappriya, S. Karthikeyan, S. Prabu, R. Pérez de Prado, B. D. Parameshachari
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: artificial bee colony, automotive system, dynamic optimization, optimization algorithm, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, SQP approach
In this paper, an improved fuel consumption and emissions control strategy based on a mathematical and heuristic approach is presented to optimize Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). The well-known Sequential Quadratic Programming mathematical method (SQP-Hessian approach) presents some limitations to achieve fuel consumption and emissions control optimization, as it is not able to find the global minimum, and it generally shows efficient results in local exploitation searches. The usage of a combined Modified Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (MABC) with the SQP approach is proposed in this work to obtain better optimal solutions and overcome these limitations. The optimization is performed with boundary conditions, considering that the optimized vehicle performance has to satisfy Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) constraints. The weighting factor of the vehicle’s performance parameters in the objective function is varied, and optimization is carried out for two... [more]
Synergy of Thermochemical Treatment of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles with Bioethanol Production for Increased Sustainability and Profitability
Samuel O’Brien, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Andrzej Białowiec
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biofuel, biorenewables, corn, CSF, DDGS, Ethanol, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, torrefaction, waste-to-carbon, waste-to-energy
The bioethanol industry continues improving sustainability, specifically focused on plant energy and GHG emission management. Dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol fermentation and is used for animal feed. DDGS is a relatively low-value bulk product that decays, causes odor, and is challenging to manage. The aim of this research was to find an alternative, value-added-type concept for DDGS utilization. Specifically, we aimed to explore the techno-economic feasibility of torrefaction, i.e., a thermochemical treatment of DDGS requiring low energy input, less sophisticated equipment, and resulting in fuel-quality biochar. Therefore, we developed a research model that addresses both bioethanol production sustainability and profitability due to synergy with the torrefaction of DDGS and using produced biochar as marketable fuel for the plant. Our experiments showed that DDGS-based biochar (CSF—carbonized solid fuel) lower calorific value may reach up to 27 MJ∙... [more]
A Surfactant for Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs in High-Salinity and High-Temperature Conditions
Yu-Qi Yang, Liang Li, Xiang Wang, Yue-Qun Fu, Xiao-Qing He, Shi-Ling Zhang, Ji-Xiang Guo
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbonate reservoirs, enhanced heavy oil recovery, heat resistance, salinity tolerance, surfactant
In view of the difficulty of producing heavy oil from carbonate reservoirs, the surfactant SDY-1 was synthesized by homogeneous solution polymerization with a homogeneous solution polymerization technique using aliphatic amine polyoxyethylene ether (PAEn) H(OCH2CH2)nNR(CH2CH2O)nH as the raw material, epichlorohydrin as the reaction intermediate, tetrabutylammonium bromide and pentamethyldivinyltriamine as the promoters, and alkylphenol as the catalyst. Based on the analysis of reservoir fluid and rock properties, the performance of the surfactant SDY-1 was evaluated in terms of its heat resistance, its salinity tolerance, its ability to change the heavy oil−water interfacial tension and rock wettability and its oil washing efficiency. The results show that when the salinity of the formation water is 2.23 × 105 mg/L, the addition of surfactant SDY-1 can lower the super-heavy oil−water interfacial tension with an asphaltene concentration of 30.19 wt.%, which is aged at a temperature of 1... [more]
Long-Term Performance Measurement and Analysis of a Small-Scale Ground Source Heat Pump System
Hao Liu, Hongyi Zhang, Saqib Javed
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ground heat exchanger, ground source heat pumps, hot water, seasonal performance factors, space heating, system performance
Recent data suggest that heat pumps, despite having the potential to cover over 90% of the global space and water heating demands, only provide less than 5% of global heating. Heat pumps, in general, and ground source heat pumps, specifically, offer significant potential for energy savings and carbon emissions reduction in buildings. The realization of these potential benefits, however, requires proper design, installation, and operation of the entire heat pump system. This paper presents the performance analysis of a Swedish ground source heat pump system providing space heating and hot water to a sports clubhouse. The installation has been carefully instrumented to enable full characterization of the whole system including auxiliary components such as circulation pumps and supplementary heating. Seasonal performance factors, calculated for monthly and annual periods using high-quality, high-resolution measurement data collected over three years of system operation, have been reported... [more]
Analyzing Impact of Distributed PV Generation on Integrated Transmission & Distribution System Voltage Stability—A Graph Trace Analysis Based Approach
Bilal Ahmad Bhatti, Robert Broadwater, Murat Dilek
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: graph trace analysis, integrated system model, power system computing, power system stability, power transmission and distribution
The use of a Graph Trace Analysis (GTA)-based power flow for analyzing the voltage stability of integrated Transmission and Distribution (T&D) networks is discussed in the context of distributed Photovoltaic (PV) generation. The voltage stability of lines and the load carrying capability of buses is analyzed at various PV penetration levels. It is shown that as the PV generation levels increase, an increase in the steady state voltage stability of the system is observed. Moreover, within certain regions of stability margin changes, changes in voltage stability margins of transmission lines are shown to be linearly related to changes in the loading of the lines. Two case studies are presented, where one case study involves a model with eight voltage levels and 784,000 nodes. In one case study, a voltage-stability heat map is used to demonstrate the identification of weak lines and buses.
Simulation Study of the Formation of Corrosive Gases in Coal Combustion in an Entrained Flow Reactor
Maximilian von Bohnstein, Coskun Yildiz, Lorenz Frigge, Jochen Ströhle, Bernd Epple
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), high temperature corrosion, pulverized fuel-firing systems
Gaseous sulfur species play a major role in high temperature corrosion of pulverized coal fired furnaces. The prediction of sulfur species concentrations by 3D-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation allows the identification of furnace wall regions that are exposed to corrosive gases, so that countermeasures against corrosion can be applied. In the present work, a model for the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is presented. The model is based on the mineral matter transformation of sulfur and chlorine bearing minerals under coal combustion conditions. The model is appended to a detailed reaction mechanism for gaseous sulfur and chlorine species and hydrocarbon related reactions, as well as a global three-step mechanism for coal devolatilization, char combustion, and char gasification. Experiments in an entrained flow were carried out to validate the developed model. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of an entrained flow reactor were performed b... [more]
Effect of Microwave Processing and Glass Inclusions on Thermoelectric Properties of P-Type Bismuth Antimony Telluride Alloys for Wearable Applications
Amin Nozariasbmarz, Daryoosh Vashaee
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: annealing, bismuth telluride, body heat harvesting, glass inclusion, microwave processing, nanocomposites, thermoelectric materials, wearable cooler
Depending on the application of bismuth telluride thermoelectric materials in cooling, waste heat recovery, or wearable electronics, their material properties, and geometrical dimensions should be designed to optimize their performance. Recently, thermoelectric materials have gained a lot of interest in wearable electronic devices for body heat harvesting and cooling purposes. For efficient wearable electronic devices, thermoelectric materials with optimum properties, i.e., low thermal conductivity, high Seebeck coefficient, and high thermoelectric figure-of-merit (zT) at room temperature, are demanded. In this paper, we investigate the effect of glass inclusion, microwave processing, and annealing on the synthesis of high-performance p-type (BixSb1−x)2Te3 nanocomposites, optimized specially for body heat harvesting and body cooling applications. Our results show that glass inclusion could enhance the room temperature Seebeck coefficient by more than 10% while maintaining zT the same.... [more]
Defect Texts Mining of Secondary Device in Smart Substation with GloVe and Attention-Based Bidirectional LSTM
Kai Chen, Rabea Jamil Mahfoud, Yonghui Sun, Dongliang Nan, Kaike Wang, Hassan Haes Alhelou, Pierluigi Siano
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: attention mechanism, defect classification, GloVe, secondary device, text mining
In the process of the operation and maintenance of secondary devices in smart substation, a wealth of defect texts containing the state information of the equipment is generated. Aiming to overcome the low efficiency and low accuracy problems of artificial power text classification and mining, combined with the characteristics of power equipment defect texts, a defect texts mining method for a secondary device in a smart substation is proposed, which integrates global vectors for word representation (GloVe) method and attention-based bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM-Attention) method in one model. First, the characteristics of the defect texts are analyzed and preprocessed to improve the quality of the defect texts. Then, defect texts are segmented into words, and the words are mapped to the high-dimensional feature space based on the global vectors for word representation (GloVe) model to form distributed word vectors. Finally, a text classification model based on BiLSTM-A... [more]
Electro-Hydraulic Transient Regimes in Isolated Pumps Working as Turbines with Self-Excited Induction Generators
Filipe C. Madeira, João F. P. Fernandes, Modesto Pérez-Sánchez, P. Amparo López-Jiménez, Helena M. Ramos, P. J. Costa Branco
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: pump working as turbine (PAT), self-excited induction generator (SEIG), transient behavior
The use of pumps working as turbines (PATs) is a sustainable technical measure that contributes to the improvement of energy efficiency in water systems. However, its performance analysis in off-grid recovery systems is a complex task that must consider both hydraulic (PAT) and electrical machines (typically a self-excited induction generator-SEIG). Aside from several kinds of research that analyze the PAT-SEIG behavior under steady-state constant hydraulic and electrical conditions, this research focuses on the analysis of PAT-SEIG transient regimes, by analyzing their variation when a sudden change occurs in the hydraulic or electrical components. Analytical models were developed to represent the operation of SEIG, PAT, and the PAT-SEIG coupled system. Hydraulic and electromechanical experimental tests validated these models. An excellent fit was obtained when analytical and experimental values were compared. With these models, the impact on the operation of the PAT-SEIG system was e... [more]
Redox Flow Batteries: A Literature Review Oriented to Automatic Control
Alejandro Clemente, Ramon Costa-Castelló
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cell stack, energy storage systems, flow battery, renewable sources, state of charge, vanadium redox flow battery
This paper presents a literature review about the concept of redox flow batteries and its automation and monitoring. Specifically, it is focused on the presentation of all-vanadium redox flow batteries which have several benefits, compared with other existing technologies and methods for energy stored purposes. The main aspects that are reviewed in this work correspond to the characterization, modeling, supervision and control of the vanadium redox flow batteries. A research is presented where redox flow batteries are contextualized in the current energy situation, compared with other types of energy storage systems. Furthermore, a presentation about the current challenges on research, and the main existing installations is view. A discussion about the main dynamic models that have been proposed during last years, as well as the different control strategies and observers, is presented.
Simulations on Design and System Performance of Building Heating Boosted by Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with Magnesium Hydro Carbonates/Silica Gel
Rickard Erlund, Ron Zevenhoven
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: exhaust air heat pump, heating system, hydrated magnesium carbonate, silica gel, Simulation, thermal energy storage
In this paper, a simulations model of a seasonal thermal energy storage (TES) reactor integrated into a house heating system is presented. The water vapour chemisorbing reactor contains a composite material composed of silica gel and hydrated magnesium carbonate (nesquehonite, MgCO3·3H2O) that can be produced by a carbon capture and storage by mineralisation process. The performance of the TES to supply winter heat instead of electrical resistance heat is analysed. Dividing the reactor into a few units (connected in series) for better heat output and storage capacity as developed by the authors is compared to one unit or parallel unit solutions. The heating system components are an exhaust air heat pump, solar collectors and a heat recovery ventilation unit (HRV). The TES is used as heat source during colder periods, which implies improved efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP). Around 70% of electrical resistance heat, assisting an exhaust air heat pump during cold periods, c... [more]
Closed-Form Expressions for the Analysis of Wave Propagation in Overhead Distribution Lines
Theofilos A. Papadopoulos, Andreas I. Chrysochos, Christos K. Traianos, Grigoris Papagiannis
March 31, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: distribution lines, earth admittance, earth impedance, electromagnetic transients, frequency-dependent soil, high frequency, modal transformation matrices, wave propagation
The calculation of the influence of the imperfect earth on overhead conductors is an important issue in power system analysis. Rigorous solutions contain infinite integrals; thus, due to their complex form, different simplified closed-form expressions have been proposed in the literature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the effect of different closed-form expressions on the investigation of the wave propagation of distribution overhead lines (OHLs). A sensitivity analysis is applied to determine the most important properties influencing the calculation of the OHL parameters. The accuracy of several closed-form earth impedance models is evaluated as well as the influence of the displacement current and imperfect earth on the shunt admittance, which are further employed in the calculation of the propagation characteristics of OHLs. The frequency-dependence of the soil electrical properties, as well as the application of different modal decomposition algorithms, are also invest... [more]
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