Records Added in July 2023
Records added in July 2023
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Showing records 1 to 25 of 277. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
The Investigation of Two-Phase Expansion Performance with Indicator Diagram in a Twin-Screw Expander
Yang Ma, Yaodong Zhou, Zhenkun Zhu
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: low grade heat, twin-screw expander, two-phase expansion, waste heat recovery
Volumetric expanders are proven to be more suitable for small-scale waste heat recovery applications because of their simplicity, reliability, lower rotational speed and lower cost. Unlike turbines, volumetric expanders can work in the two-phase fluid state, which broadens their application fields. To investigate the two-phase performance of volumetric expanders, a specific twin-screw expander was chosen and modeled. The leakage loss and the suction pressure loss were primary concerns in this research. The two-phase expansion process in the expander is presented in detail using the developed mathematical model with an indicator diagram. The influence of several factors, including inlet vapor quality, rotational speed and intake pressure, are investigated. The influence mechanism of the vapor phase and the liquid phase on expander performance is clarified. In brief, this paper presents an illustrative understanding of the two-phase expansion process in twin-screw expanders.
Numerical Investigations of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics in Microchannels with Bionic Fish-Shaped Ribs
Quanyue Gao, Haibo Zou, Juan Li
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bionic ribs arrangement, heat transfer, microchannel, numerical simulation, thermal boundary layers
Microchannel cooling technology is an effective method to solve local thermal stacking. In this paper, four innovative microchannels with bionic fish-shaped rib arrangements (CM-O, CM-R, CM-H, and CM-G) are designed by imitating geese and fish clusters. The heat transfer and flow characteristics of the microchannels are simulated numerically at different Reynold’s numbers (Re = 200 − 1600). The liquid water temperature and flow field in the four innovative microchannels with bionic ribs are analyzed. The results show that the ribs’ arrangement has an influence on the thermal performance of microchannels. Compared to the smooth microchannel (CM), the of the Nu microchannels with the bionic fish-shaped ribs increases by 33.00−53.26% while the fave increases by 28.63−34.93% at Re = 1200. The vortices around the ribs are clearly observed which improves the temperature gradient. The performance evaluation criterion (PEC) of CM-H is higher than that of the others. This indicates that the rib... [more]
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of α-Tocopherol Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents
Aneta Baj, Lucie Rárová, Artur Ratkiewicz, Miroslav Strnad, Stanislaw Witkowski
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: apoptosis, cancer, mitocans, vitamin E derivatives, α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TS), α-tocopheryloxyacetic acid (α-TEA)
α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TS) and α-tocopheryloxyacetic acid (α-TEA) are potent inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells and efficient suppressors of tumors in experimental model cancer cell lines. They exhibit selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and very limited or no toxicity toward nonmalignant cells. In the present work, a series of new α-tocopherol derivatives were synthesized as analogs of α-TS and α-TEA. The cytotoxic activity of obtained compounds was tested using three human cancer cell lines, including chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CEM), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), and normal human fibroblasts (BJ). The introduction of an alkyl substituent into the ether-linked acetic acid moiety in α-TEA increased anticancer activity. α-Tocopheryloxy-2-methylpropanoic acid with two additional geminal methyl groups was more active against CEM cells compared to α-TEA and non-toxic to normal cells. In order to acquire a deeper understanding of the biologi... [more]
Observer-Based Control of Inductive Wireless Power Transfer System Using Genetic Algorithm
Mahmoud Abdelrahim, Dhafer Almakhles
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: eigenstructure assignment, Genetic Algorithm, linear quadratic regulator, wireless power transfer
In this paper, we studied the feedback stabilization of an inductive power transfer system based on available output measurement. The proposed controller relies on a full-order state observer in order to estimate the unmeasured state. The control design problem is challenging due to the large dimension of the closed-loop system, which requires too many tuning parameters to be determined when conventional control methods are employed. To solve this issue, we propose an LQR methodology based on a genetic algorithm such that the weighing coefficients of the cost function matrices can be automatically computed in an optimized manner. The proposed approach combines the method of eigenstructure assignment and the LQR technique in order to design both the controller and the observer gain matrices. The design methodology provides a systematic way to compute the parameters of the LQR technique for a wireless power transfer system in an optimized manner, which can be a useful design tool for man... [more]
Thermo-Hydraulic Management System Employing Single-Phase Water Flow through Microchannels with Micro-Inserts Added Aiming for Performance Improvement
Shailesh Ranjan Kumar, Satyendra Singh
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: friction factor, heat transfer performance, micro-inserts, microchannel, pressure drop, thermal performance factor
A microchannel heat exchanger effectively evacuates heat from a confined space. This paper attempts to gain insight into the combinatorial repercussions of simultaneously coupling two factors that affect a microchannel’s performance, of which channel size and micro-insert complexity are the two main contributors. With water as the working fluid, an ANSYS-based numerical analysis was carried out for two distinct channel sizes, 1 and 2 mm, both with and without micro-inserts. The Reynolds numbers varied between 125 and 4992 and between 250 and 9985 for the 1 and 2 mm channels, respectively. For the 2 mm diameter channel, adding micro-inserts raised the overall pressure drop with increased Reynolds number. The inclusion of micro-inserts increased the pressure drop in the 1 mm channel at first, and thereafter the pressure drop decreased. Incorporating micro-inserts into the channel resulted in enhanced heat transfer. The trade-off between enhanced heat transfer performance and a larger pre... [more]
Novel Copper Oxide Phyto-Nanocatalyst Utilized for the Synthesis of Sustainable Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis Seed Oil
Aqsa Aziz, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Abdel-Rhman Z. Gaafar, Mohamed S. Hodhod, Shazia Sultana, Mohammad Athar, Fethi Ahmet Ozdemir, Trobjon Makhkamov, Akramjon Yuldashev, Oybek Mamarakhimov, Maxsuda Nizomova, Salman Majeed, Bisha Chaudhay
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biocatalyst, colocynth, green fuel, non-edible feedstock, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The green chemistry method for nanocatalyst synthesis along with environmentally feasible non-edible sources are promising alternatives to fossil fuels. The current study focuses on the synthesis of copper oxide phyto-nanocatalyst and the identification of a new renewable feedstock, Citrullus colocynthis, to reduce environmental pollution. The highest biodiesel yield (95%) was obtained under optimum conditions of a 1:8 oil-to-methanol ratio and reaction temperature of 85 °C for 120 min with a 0.365 wt% catalyst concentration. The phyto-nanocatalyst was synthesized using seed oil cake after extracting oil with the salt of copper (copper oxide). The catalyst was then subjected to various analyses, namely, EDX, FT-IR, SEM, and XRD. The catalyst was proved to be efficient and effective after being reused five times and still there was a very small difference in biodiesel yield. All the analyses also show sustainable and stable results. Thus, copper oxide phyto-nanocatalyst with non-edible... [more]
Temperature−Electrokinetic Co-Driven Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) Adsorption on Geo-Adsorbents
Yuzhou Yin, Yongping Shan, Dong Ma, Liuqing Yang, Mingxiu Zhan, Ping Liu, Benzhen Lou, Bo Zhang, Wentao Jiao, Lichu Yin
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: adsorption kinetics, adsorption thermodynamics, electrokinetic, electroosmotic flow, PFOS, temperature
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have concerned the public due to their worldwide distribution and the threat they pose to drinking water safety and human health. Temperature and DC field-induced electroosmotic flow (EOF) are powerful tools to regulate organic contaminant adsorption and control PFOS (as a typical PFAS) transport in porous media. However, the co-driven mechanisms of temperature−electrokinetic transport of contaminants are still unclear. Here, we investigated the synergistic mechanisms of temperature−electrokinetic co-driven PFOS adsorption on zeolite and activated carbon as model geo-adsorbents. We found that DC fields increased PFOS adsorption on activated carbon by up to 19.8%, while they decreased PFOS adsorption on zeolite by up to 21.4%. Increasing the temperature decreased the adsorption of PFOS by activated carbon and zeolite. The temperature and electrokinetic synergistically drive EOF velocity to control PFOS adsorption. Synergistic mechanisms of temp... [more]
A Feasibility Study on the Use of Injection Molding Systems for Mass Production of 100W Class Wind Turbine Blades
Joongseon Kim, Upendra Tuladhar, Deokkeun Je, Marinus Mieremet, Joonho Baek, Hoseong Ji, Seokyoung Ahn
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: injection molding, mass production, Moldflow, small wind turbine
A feasibility study on the mass production of a small wind turbine blade using an injection molding process was conducted. The blade was divided into three sections suitable for injection molding, and the mold was designed and analyzed using Moldflow CAE S/W. The optimal feedstock material was selected through comparison and analysis of three candidate materials. A mold was manufactured to test the injection molding process and evaluate related parameters. The resulting blade was assembled with other components, and a generator was installed to assess its durability, safety, and performance under various conditions. The results indicated the feasibility of producing a blade for a small wind turbine through injection molding, which predicted higher productivity and lower costs compared to traditional manufacturing methods that rely heavily on manual labor.
Comparison and Analysis of Several Quantitative Identification Models of Pesticide Residues Based on Quick Detection Paperboard
Yao Zhang, Qifu Zheng, Xiaobin Chen, Yingyi Guan, Jingbo Dai, Min Zhang, Yunyuan Dong, Haodong Tang
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: data averaging, image processing, pesticide residue, prediction model, RGB color model
Pesticide residues have long been a significant aspect of food safety, which has always been a major social concern. This study presents research and analysis on the identification of pesticide residue fast detection cards based on the enzyme inhibition approach. In this study, image recognition technology is used to extract the color information RGB eigenvalues from the detection results of the quick detection card, and four regression models are established to quantitatively predict the pesticide residue concentration indicated by the quick detection card using RGB eigenvalues. The four regression models are linear regression model, quadratic polynomial regression model, exponential regression model and RBF neural network model. Through study and comparison, it has been shown that the exponential regression model is superior at predicting the pesticide residue concentration indicated by the rapid detection card. The correlation value is 0.900, and the root mean square error is 0.106.... [more]
Optimization Design of an Intermediate Fluid Thermoelectric Generator for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery
Wei Zhang, Wenjie Li, Shuqian Li, Liyao Xie, Minghui Ge, Yulong Zhao
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: intermediate fluid, Optimization, power deviation, thermoelectric generator
The intermediate fluid thermoelectric generator (IFTEG) represents a novel approach to power generation, predicated upon the principles of gravity heat pipe technology. Its key advantages include high-power output and a compact module area. The generator’s performance, however, is influenced by the variable exhaust parameters typical of automobile operation, which presents a significant challenge in the design process. The present study establishes a mathematical model to optimize the design of the IFTEG. Our findings suggest that the optimal module area sees substantial growth with an increase in both the exhaust heat exchanger area and the exhaust flow rate. Interestingly, the optimal module area appears to demonstrate a low sensitivity to changes in exhaust temperature. To address the challenge of determining the optimal module area, this study introduces the concept of peak power deviation. This method posits that any deviation from the optimal module area results in an equivalent... [more]
A Review of Third Generation Solar Cells
N. Shah, A. A. Shah, P. K. Leung, S. Khan, K. Sun, X. Zhu, Q. Liao
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: dye-sensitized, organic photovoltaics, Perovskite, quantum dot, Shockley–Queisser limit, tandem solar cells, third generation
Third-generation solar cells are designed to achieve high power-conversion efficiency while being low-cost to produce. These solar cells have the ability to surpass the Shockley−Queisser limit. This review focuses on different types of third-generation solar cells such as dye-sensitized solar cells, Perovskite-based cells, organic photovoltaics, quantum dot solar cells, and tandem solar cells, a stacked form of different materials utilizing a maximum solar spectrum to achieve high power conversion efficiency. Apart from these solar cells, other third-generation technologies are also discussed, including up-conversion, down-conversion, hot-carrier, and multiple exciton. This review provides an overview of the previous work in the field, alongside an introduction to the technologies, including their working principles and components. Advancements made in the different components and improvements in performance parameters such as the fill factor, open circuit voltage, conversion efficienc... [more]
Comparative Analysis of Paddy Harvesting Systems toward Low-Carbon Mechanization in the Future: A Case Study in Sri Lanka
P. D. Kahandage, S. D. S. Piyathissa, Reza Ariesca, Namgay, Riaru Ishizaki, E. J. Kosgollegedara, G. V. T. V. Weerasooriya, Tofael Ahamed, Ryozo Noguchi
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: combine harvesting, effective field capacity, greenhouse gas emissions, manual harvesting, reaper harvesting
In this study, three paddy harvesting systems, manual harvesting of paddy (MHP), reaper harvesting of paddy (RHP), and combine harvesting of paddy (CHP), were evaluated considering field capacities, field efficiencies, time and fuel consumption, mechanization indices, greenhouse gas emissions, straw availability, and direct and indirect costs. Field experiments were conducted in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. The effective field capacity, field efficiency and fuel consumption of the combine harvester were 0.34 hah−1, 60.8%, and 34.1 Lha−1, respectively, and those of the paddy reaper were 0.185 hah−1, 58.2%, and 3.8 Lha−1, respectively. The total time consumed by MHP, RHP, and CHP were 76.05 hha−1, 39.76 hha−1, and 2.94 hha−1, respectively. The highest energy utilization was recorded by the CHP, at 1851.09 MJha−1, while MHP recorded the lowest at 643.20 MJha−1. The direct cost of the MHP was 1.50 and 1.52 times higher than those of the CHP and RHP, respectively. MHP recorded t... [more]
Operating and Thermal Efficiency Boundary Expansion of Argon Power Cycle Hydrogen Engine
Weiqi Ding, Jun Deng, Chenxu Wang, Renjie Deng, Hao Yang, Yongjian Tang, Zhe Ma, Liguang Li
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: argon power cycle, indicated thermal efficiency, knock, stratified combustion, water injection
The efficiency enhancement of argon power cycle engines through theoretical means has been substantiated. However, the escalation of in-cylinder temperatures engenders abnormal combustion phenomena, impeding the augmentation of compression ratios and practical efficiency. This study presents a comprehensive investigation employing experimental and simulation techniques, aiming to extend the boundaries of thermal efficiency and operational capabilities for hydrogen-powered argon cycle engines. The impact of hydrogen direct injection, intake boost, and port water injection is evaluated in conjunction with an argon power cycle hydrogen engine. The hydrogen direct injection, particularly at an engine speed of 1000 rpm, significantly increases the indicated mean effective pressure from 0.39 MPa to 0.72 Mpa, surpassing the performance of the port hydrogen injection. Manipulating the hydrogen direct injection timing results in the formation of a stratified mixture, effectively attenuating the... [more]
Existing Stature and Possible Outlook of Renewable Power in Comprehensive Electricity Market
Shreya Shree Das, Jayendra Kumar, Subhojit Dawn, Ferdinando Salata
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: environment, global power scenario, grid-interactive power, India power scenario, renewable energy sources, tariff
The massive growth in power demand and the sharp decay in the availability of conventional energy sources forces society to move toward renewable power consumption. The rise in renewable energy utilization is one of the greatest strategies involved in making the environment clean, green, and emission-free. The investment cost is slightly high for this kind of resource, but their running costsare very minimal, which encourages power producers to invest in renewable power plants. Power producers always focus on their economic profit and possible feasibilities before the investment in a new power plant setup. Wind, small hydro, and solar photovoltaics have been considered the foremost efficient and feasible renewable sources. In 2021, the worldwide renewable power capacity had grown to 17%, despite supply chain disturbances and surges in prices. The renewable power market set a target of achieving a 95% increment in global power capacity by 2026. Hence, humankind should consider wind, hyd... [more]
D-Limonene as a Promising Green Solvent for the Detachment of End-of-Life Photovoltaic Solar Panels under Sonication
Dina Magdy Abdo, Teresa Mangialardi, Franco Medici, Luigi Piga
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: D-limonene, detachment, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), photovoltaic solar panels, recycling, treatment
Consumption of photovoltaic solar panels is expected to increase, so the growing amount of end-of-life (EOL) solar panels will require large spaces for their disposal, which at the moment costs around 200 euros/ton. Thus, a proper treatment technique to recover secondary materials from this waste, which are mainly copper, aluminum, silicon, high-transmittance glass, and plastics, must be developed. The last three components are strongly attached to each other; hence, their detachment is necessary for recovery. To achieve this objective, a chemical route was chosen; in fact, solvent extraction is highly recommended, as it has a high separation efficiency. In this study, D-limonene as a bio-solvent was examined for detaching different components of solar panels from each other. A high efficiency for ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) dissolution and components’ detachment under different conditions was achieved with the help of sonication power. The effects of sonication power, thermal pre-tre... [more]
Development of a Continuous Process Chain for Selective Recovery and Purification of Rare Metals
Timo Dobler, Simon Buchheiser, Thomas Gaschler, Stefan Platzk, Harald Kruggel-Emden, Hermann Nirschl, Marco Gleiß
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: cake washing, filtration, process design, purification, recovery, solvent extraction
Solar cells, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have become more and more important in recent decades. Crucial components of such electronic devices include rare metals (e.g., indium and gallium), which are only available in limited quantities. In order to meet their rising demand in the coming years, recycling processes, especially those that enable selective recovery of the individual components, are steadily gaining in importance. One conceivable method is particle-loaded solvent extraction followed by mechanical processing. Therefore, we first investigated the possibility of recovering individual particle fractions from a multicomponent mixture on the basis of the surface properties. Both UV−Vis spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) were used for evaluation. The conducted experiments showed, among other things, that the indium oxide content increased from 50% to 99% in a binary system and from 33% to 94% in a ternary compound. In addition... [more]
Experimental Investigation and CFD Simulation of Cryogenic Condenser
Seyedsajjad Jazayeri, Afham Pourahmad, Seyyed Amirreza Abdollahi, Amin. Hassanvand, Falah Alobaid, Babak Aghel
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: boiling, computational fluid dynamic, cryogenic condensation, volume of fluid
In this research, experimental investigation and the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a cryogenic condenser for oxygen liquefaction was carried out. The liquid nitrogen was used as a cooling fluid. In the simulation section, a three-dimensional model with a structured mesh with high mesh quality for aspect ratio and skewness was considered. The multi-phase flow inside the condenser was studied numerically, using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. This work also examined the assessment of the vapor generation rate during the condensation of oxygen, based on the boiling heat transfer mechanism and the unique physical characteristics. The experiment was conducted to examine the simulation results. The effect of liquid nitrogen height on the oxygen mass flows was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The average deviation of the CFD predictions from the available experimental oxygen mass flows was 17%.
Scheduling Jobs with a Limited Waiting Time Constraint on a Hybrid Flowshop
Sang-Oh Shim, BongJoo Jeong, June-Yong Bang, JeongMin Park
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: diffusion workstation, hybrid flowshop, limited waiting time, Scheduling, semiconductor fabrication
In this paper, we address a two-stage hybrid flowshop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines in each stage. The problem assumes that the queue (Q)-time for each job, which represents the waiting time to be processed in the current stage, must be limited to a predetermined threshold due to quality concerns for the final product. This problem is motivated by one that occurs in the real field, especially in the diffusion workstation of a semiconductor fabrication. Our objective is to minimize the makespan of the jobs while considering product quality. To achieve this goal, we formulated mathematical programming, developed two dominance properties for this problem, and proposed three heuristics with the suggested dominance properties to solve the considered problem. We conducted simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches using randomly generated problem instances that are created to closely resemble real production scenarios, and the results... [more]
Research on the Access Planning of SOP and ESS in Distribution Network Based on SOCP-SSGA
Yuxin Jia, Qiong Li, Xu Liao, Linjun Liu, Jian Wu
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: economic costs, Energy Storage, second-order cone planning, soft open point, steady-state genetic algorithm
This paper proposes a two-stage planning model for soft open point (SOP) and energy storage system (ESS) that considers the cost of faults in response to the current issue of SOP and ESS systems not considering the impact of SOP access on load transfer in the event of a fault in the distribution network. Firstly, considering the uncertainty of “PV-load”, typical scenarios of PV and load are constructed based on the clustering algorithm. Secondly, aiming at the economic performance of the distribution network and the capacity of PV access, a two-stage optimization model is established for the joint integration of SOP and ESS into the distribution network (normal and fault operation) under typical scenarios. The model is solved by using the second-order cone programming algorithm and steady-state genetic algorithm (SOCP-SSGA). Stage one involves planning for the integration capacity and location of SOP and ESS into the distribution network under each scenario within a period based on SOC... [more]
Matrix Non-Structural Model and Its Application in Heat Exchanger Network without Stream Split
Dinghao Li, Jingde Wang, Wei Sun, Nan Zhang
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, heat exchanger network synthesis, matrix real-coded, non-structural model, Optimization
Heat integration by a heat exchanger network (HEN) is an important topic in chemical process system synthesis. From the perspective of optimization, the simultaneous synthesis of HEN belongs to a mixed-integer and nonlinear programming problem. Both the stage-wise superstructure (SWS) model and the chessboard model are the most widely adopted and belong to structural models, in which a framework is assumed for stream matching, and the global optimal solution outside its feasible domain may be defined by the framework. A node-wise non-structural model (NW-NSM) is proposed to find more universal stream matching options, but it requires a mass of structural variables and extra multiple correction strategies. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel matrix non-structural model (M-NSM) for HEN without stream splits from the perspectives of global optimization methods and superstructure models. In the proposed M-NSM, the heat exchanger position order is quantized by matrix elements at eac... [more]
Immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens Lipase on Hollow Poly(o-phenylenediamine) Microspheres and Its Application in the Preparation of Citronellyl Acetate
Jian Xiong, Qi Wang, Hanghang Xu, Wenyuan Sun
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: citronellyl acetate, covalent binding method, immobilization, lipase, poly(o-phenylenediamine), transesterification reaction
In order to address the challenges associated with free lipase in organic solvents, including aggregation, poor stability, and low catalytic efficiency, this study developed two types of poly(o-phenylenediamine) microspheres (solid and hollow) as supports for immobilizing lipase. The immobilization process utilized an adsorption method, with the poly(o-phenylenediamine) hollow microspheres being identified as the optimal support in a 2:5 enzyme-to-support ratio. On this basis, the lipase was immobilized by the covalent binding method. The immobilization conditions consisted of treating the support with 2% glutaraldehyde and immobilization at 40 °C for 2 h in pH 7.0 buffer. The specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 5.3 times higher than that of the free enzyme. Covalent-binding immobilized lipase was also used for the preparation of citronellyl acetate by transesterification reaction, and, in optimized reaction conditions where the amount of immobilized enzyme was 0.1 g/mL, th... [more]
Research on Path Planning and Tracking Control of Autonomous Vehicles Based on Improved RRT* and PSO-LQR
Yong Zhang, Feng Gao, Fengkui Zhao
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: autonomous vehicle, linear quadratic regulator, Particle Swarm Optimization, path planning, RRT*, tracking control
Path planning and tracking control are essential parts of autonomous vehicle research. Regarding path planning, the Rapid Exploration Random Tree Star (RRT*) algorithm has attracted much attention due to its completeness. However, the algorithm still suffers from slow convergence and high randomness. Regarding path tracking, the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) algorithm is widely used in various control applications due to its efficient stability and ease of implementation. However, the relatively empirical selection of its weight matrix can affect the control effect. This study suggests a path planning and tracking control framework for autonomous vehicles based on an upgraded RRT* and Particle Swarm Optimization Linear Quadratic Regulator (PSO-LQR) to address the abovementioned issues. Firstly, according to the driving characteristics of autonomous vehicles, a variable sampling area is used to limit the generation of random sampling points, significantly reducing the number of itera... [more]
Use of Potential Immobilized Enzymes for the Modification of Liquid Foods in the Food Industry
Ernestina Garcia-Quinto, Raquel Aranda-Cañada, Paz García-García, Gloria Fernández-Lorente
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biocatalysts, enzymes, food industry, immobilization, immobilized enzymes
Enzymes are complex proteins that carry out biochemical reactions. Apart from being necessary for life, they are used in numerous industrial processes, especially in the textile, pharmaceutical, food and chemical sectors. One of the longest-lived industries regarding the use of enzymes is the food industry. Enzymes have always been used, mainly in their free form, to obtain new products and to improve the organoleptic qualities in different industries, such as in dairy, fruit and vegetables, and beverages. However, today, immobilized enzymes are the focus of attention in the liquid food industry, as they offer numerous advantages, such as stabilization and reuse, which enable cost reduction.
Numerical Simulation of Wormhole Propagation with Foamed-Viscoelastic-Surfactant Acid in Carbonate Acidizing
Lufeng Zhang, Haibo Wang, Fujian Zhou, Jianye Mou
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: carbonate reservoir, foamed-VES acid, temporary plugging and diverting
Successful matrix acidizing for extremely thick carbonate reservoirs with long horizontal well sections and strong heterogeneity requires efficient temporary plugging and diverting of acid fluid, ensuring acid fluid distribution to each production layer. Foamed-viscoelastic-surfactant (Foamed-VES) acid combines the benefits of both foam acid and viscoelastic surfactant (VES) acid, integrating foam plugging and viscous plugging. It can achieve uniform acid distribution in highly heterogeneous reservoirs. However, little research has been conducted on the wormhole propagation law of foamed-VES acid. To address this gap, this study established a mathematical model of foamed-VES acid wormhole propagation based on the dual-scale model. The model was coupled with a random porosity distribution generated with geological statistical software. The effects of different factors on foamed-VES acid etching were simulated. Numerical results show that foamed-VES acid can stimulate low-permeability re... [more]
Improved Active Islanding Detection Technique with Different Current Injection Waveform
Shaoru Zhang, Lijun Wang, Xiuju Du, Ruiye Zhang, Zhanping Huang, Shuchun Duan, Wenxiu Yang, Pingjun Wang, Jielu Zhang
July 13, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: active frequency drift method, active islanding detection technique, different current injection waveform, harmonic, non-detection zone
The active frequency drift (AFD) method is an effective method to detect islanding in grid-connected photovoltaic systems. However, it has some inherent drawbacks, such as generating higher harmonics. In order to reduce the harmonics and non-detection zone (NDZ), various improved AFD methods have been proposed, but they still suffer from high harmonics and reduced detection speed. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an innovative islanding detection technique based on AFD. Analysis reveals that the proposed method reduces harmonics by 68% compared to conventional AFD and has a larger chopping factor. Therefore, this technique offers several distinct advantages, including accelerated detection speed, reduced NDZ and harm caused by disturbances, and improved power quality. Furthermore, to verify the harmonic impact of this proposed islanding detection method, simulations and analyses are conducted using simulation software of Matlab/Simulink. An experimental prototype is s... [more]
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