Records with Keyword: Synthetic Fuels
The Role of Direct Air Capture in EU’s Decarbonisation and Associated Carbon Intensity for Synthetic Fuels Production
Rocio Gonzalez Sanchez, Anatoli Chatzipanagi, Georgia Kakoulaki, Marco Buffi, Sandor Szabo
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: carbon footprint, decarbonisation, direct air capture, Hydrogen, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Synthetic Fuels
Direct air capture (DAC) is considered one of the mitigation strategies in most of the future scenarios trying to limit global temperature to 1.5 °C. Given the high expectations placed on DAC for future decarbonisation, this study presents an extensive review of DAC technologies, exploring a number of techno-economic aspects, including an updated collection of the current and planned DAC projects around the world. A dedicated analysis focused on the production of synthetic methane, methanol, and diesel from DAC and electrolytic hydrogen in the European Union (EU) is also performed, where the carbon footprint is analysed for different scenarios and energy sources. The results show that the maximum grid carbon intensity to obtain negative emissions with DAC is estimated at 468 gCO2e/kWh, which is compliant with most of the EU countries’ current grid mix. Using only photovoltaics (PV) and wind, negative emissions of at least −0.81 tCO2e/tCO2 captured can be achieved. The maximum grid inte... [more]
An Overview of Major Synthetic Fuels
Vishal Ram, Surender Reddy Salkuti
April 18, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alternate fuels, bio-methanol, Biofuels, Biofuels, bottlenecks of synthetic fuels, classification and production of synthetic fuels, conversion pathways, Fischer–Tropsch, gas to liquid fuels, HVO, hydrogen fuels, key players of synthetic fuels, power to liquid fuels, quality of yield, sustainable aviation fuel, synthesis gas, synthetic diesel, Synthetic Fuels
Artificial fuels have been researched for more than a decade now in an attempt to find alternative sources of energy. With global climatic conditions rapidly approaching the end of their safe line, an emphasis on escalating the change has been seen in recent times. Synthetic fuels are a diverse group of compounds that can be used as replacements for traditional fuels, such as gasoline and diesel. This paper provides a comprehensive review of synthetic fuels, with a focus on their classification and production processes. The article begins with an in-depth introduction, followed by virtually classifying the major synthetic fuels that are currently produced on an industrial scale. The article further discusses their feedstocks and production processes, along with detailed equations and diagrams to help readers understand the basic science behind synthetic fuels. The environmental impact of these fuels is also explored, along with their respective key players in the industry. By highlight... [more]
Solar Thermochemical Green Fuels Production: A Review of Biomass Pyro-Gasification, Solar Reactor Concepts and Modelling Methods
Stéphane Abanades, Sylvain Rodat, Houssame Boujjat
April 14, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, solar pyrolysis–gasification, solar reactor, spouted bed, Syngas, Synthetic Fuels, waste conversion
This paper addresses the solar thermochemical conversion of biomass or waste feedstocks based on pyro-gasification for the clean production of high-value and energy-intensive fuels. The utilization of solar energy for supplying the required process heat is attractive to lower the dependence of gasification processes on conventional energy resources and to reduce emissions of CO2 and other pollutants for the production of high-value chemical synthetic fuels (syngas). Using concentrated solar energy to drive the endothermal reactions further allows producing more syngas with a higher gas quality, since it has not been contaminated by combustion products, while saving biomass resources. The solar-driven process is thus a sustainable and promising alternative route, enabling syngas yield enhancement and CO2 mitigation, thereby potentially outperforming the performance of conventional processes for syngas production. This review presents relevant research studies in the field and provides t... [more]
From Niche to Market—An Agent-Based Modeling Approach for the Economic Uptake of Electro-Fuels (Power-to-Fuel) in the German Energy System
Christian Schnuelle, Kasper Kisjes, Torben Stuehrmann, Pablo Thier, Igor Nikolic, Arnim von Gleich, Stefan Goessling-Reisemann
April 4, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agent-based modeling, Energiewende, Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) Umlage, European Union emission trading system (EU ETS), Germany’s energy transition, power-to-fuel, power-to-gas, power-to-liquid, Synthetic Fuels
The transition process towards renewable energy systems is facing challenges in both fluctuating electricity generation of photovoltaic and wind power as well as socio-economic disruptions. With regard to sector integration, solutions need to be developed, especially for the mobility and the industry sector, because their ad hoc electrification and decarbonization seem to be unfeasible. Power-to-fuel (P2F) technologies may contribute to bridge the gap, as renewable energy can be transferred into hydrogen and hydrocarbon-based synthetic fuels. However, the renewable fuels production is far from economically competitive with conventional fuels. With a newly developed agent-based model, potential developments in the German energy markets were simulated for a horizon of 20 years from 2016 to 2035. The model was constructed through a participatory modeling process with relevant actors and stakeholders in the field. Model findings suggest that adjusted regulatory framework conditions (e.g.,... [more]
Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines
Jorge Martins, F. P. Brito
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biofuels, fuels, internal combustion engine, Synthetic Fuels
The recent transport electrification trend is pushing governments to limit the future use of Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, the rationale for this strong limitation is frequently not sufficiently addressed or justified. The problem does not seem to lie within the engines nor with the combustion by themselves but seemingly, rather with the rise in greenhouse gases (GHG), namely CO2, rejected to the atmosphere. However, it is frequent that the distinction between fossil CO2 and renewable CO2 production is not made, or even between CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions. The present revision paper discusses and introduces different alternative fuels that can be burned in IC Engines and would eliminate, or substantially reduce the emission of fossil CO2 into the atmosphere. These may be non-carbon fuels such as hydrogen or ammonia, or biofuels such as alcohols, ethers or esters, including synthetic fuels. There are also other types of fuels that may be used, such as those base... [more]
Property Data Estimation for Hemiformals, Methylene Glycols and Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers and Process Optimization in Formaldehyde Synthesis
Steffen Schemme, Sven Meschede, Maximilian Köller, Remzi Can Samsun, Ralf Peters, Detlef Stolten
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen Plus, formalin, power-to-fuel, process design, Synthetic Fuels, thermodynamic modeling
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (OMEn) are frequently discussed as alternative diesel fuels, with various synthesis routes considered. OME3−5 syntheses demand significant amounts of thermal energy due to the complex separation processes that they entail. Therefore, innovative process designs are needed. An important tool for the development of new processes is process simulation software. To ensure sound process simulations, reliable physico-chemical models and component property data are necessary. Herein we present the implementation of a state-of-the-art thermodynamic model to describe the component systems of formaldehyde-water and formaldehyde-methanol using Microsoft® Excel (2010, Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA, USA) and Aspen Plus®, (V8.8, Aspen Tech, Bedford, MA, USA) determine the deviation between the calculated results and experimental literature data, and minimize the deviation by means of parameter fitting. To improve the accuracy of the estimation of the missing property da... [more]
Production and Economic Assessment of Synthetic Fuels in Agriculture—A Case Study from Northern Germany
Clemens Fuchs, Drees Meyer, Axel Poehls
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: agriculture, Batteries, break-even, combustion engines, economy, photovoltaics, Synthetic Fuels, wind turbines
A climate-friendly and CO2-neutral energy supply for agricultural farms is the subject of investigation of this study. The supply concerns the internal economy (buildings and animal husbandry) as well as the production of synthetic fuels for outdoor work (cultivation of the fields). This energy is in demand with many customers, e.g., the dairy cooperative Arla Foods, whose goal is the production of cow’s milk with net-zero CO2 emissions by the year 2050. The operational energy system considered here included renewable electricity generation, covering electricity consumption in the cowshed, battery storage for times without electricity generation, the production of synthetic fuels and feeding into the public power grid. Fluctuations depending on the day and the season were taken into account for electricity at 15-min intervals and for fuel per calendar week for one year. The aim was to determine the necessary capacities of renewable energy (RE) generation systems and production systems... [more]
An Overview of Promising Alternative Fuels for Road, Rail, Air, and Inland Waterway Transport in Germany
Janos Lucian Breuer, Juri Scholten, Jan Christian Koj, Felix Schorn, Marc Fiebrandt, Remzi Can Samsun, Rolf Albus, Klaus Görner, Detlef Stolten, Ralf Peters
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: environmental impacts, future mobility concepts, Hydrogen, LCA, Power-to-Gas, Power-to-Liquid, Synthetic Fuels, synthetic natural gas, technology readiness level, transport
To solve the challenge of decarbonizing the transport sector, a broad variety of alternative fuels based on different concepts, including Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid, and propulsion systems, have been developed. The current research landscape is investigating either a selection of fuel options or a selection of criteria, a comprehensive overview is missing so far. This study aims to close this gap by providing a holistic analysis of existing fuel and drivetrain options, spanning production to utilization. For this purpose, a case study for Germany is performed considering different vehicle classes in road, rail, inland waterway, and air transport. The evaluated criteria on the production side include technical maturity, costs, as well as environmental impacts, whereas, on the utilization side, possible blending with existing fossil fuels and the satisfaction of the required mission ranges are evaluated. Overall, the fuels and propulsion systems, Methanol-to-Gasoline, Fischer−Trops... [more]
Mind the Gap—A Socio-Economic Analysis on Price Developments of Green Hydrogen, Synthetic Fuels, and Conventional Energy Carriers in Germany
Christian Schnuelle, Timo Wassermann, Torben Stuehrmann
February 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: environmental impact costs, Hydrogen, inflation, Synthetic Fuels
In recent years, the development of energy prices in Germany has been frequently accompanied by criticism and warnings of socio-economic disruptions. Especially with respect to the electricity sector, the debate on increasing energy bills was strongly correlated with the energy system transition. However, whereas fossil fuels have rapidly increased in price recently, renewable substitutes such as green hydrogen and synthetic fuels also enter the markets at comparatively high prices. On the other hand, the present fossil fuel supply is still considered too low-priced by experts because societal greenhouse gas-induced environmental impact costs are not yet compensated. In this study, we investigate the development of the price gap between conventional energy carriers and their renewable substitutes until 2050 as well as a suitable benchmark price, incorporating the societal costs of specific energy carriers. The calculated benchmark prices for natural gas (6.3 ct kWh−1), petrol (9.9 ct k... [more]
Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids (BGNTL) Processes Part I: Model Development and Simulation
James Alexander Scott, Thomas Alan Adams II
August 7, 2018 (v1)
New polygeneration processes for the co-production of liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids, methanol, and dimethyl ether) and electricity are presented. The processes use a combination of biomass, natural gas, and nuclear energy as primary energy feeds. Chemical process models were created and used to simulate candidate versions of the process, using combinations of models ranging from complex multi- scale models to standard process flowsheet models. The simulation results are presented for an Ontario, Canada case study to obtain key metrics such as efficiency and product conversions. Sample Aspen Plus files are provided in the supplementary material to be used by others.
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