LAPSE:2023.27407
Published Article
LAPSE:2023.27407
Influence of the Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Systems in Woodchippers Powered by Small Engines on Exhaust Emissions and Operating Costs
Łukasz Warguła, Mateusz Kukla, Piotr Lijewski, Michał Dobrzyński, Filip Markiewicz
April 4, 2023
The use of alternative fuels is a contemporary trend in science aimed at the protection of non-renewable resources, reducing the negative impact on people and reducing the negative impact on the natural environment. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is an alternative fuel within the meaning of the European Union Directive (2014/94/UE), as it is an alternative for energy sources derived from crude oil. The use of LPG fuel in low-power internal combustion engines is one of the currently developed scientific research directions. It results from the possibility of limiting air pollutant emissions compared to the commonly used gasoline and the lower cost of this fuel in many countries. By “gasoline 95” the Authors mean non-lead petrol as a flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines, whereas 95 is an octane rating (octane number). This article presents the results of research on fuel consumption, toxic exhaust gas emission, and operating costs of a woodchipper used for shredding branches with a diameter of up to 100 mm in real working conditions. The woodchipper, powered by a 9.5 kW internal combustion engine, fueled by gasoline and LPG was tested. Liberal regulations of the European Union (Regulation 2016/1628/EU) on the emission of harmful exhaust compounds from small spark-ignition engines (up to 19 kW) and non-road applications contribute to the low technical advancement level of these engines. The authors researched a relatively simple and cheap LPG fueling system, as in their opinion, such a system has the best chance of being implemented for use. In the study, the branches of cherry plum were shredded (Prunus cerasiferaEhrh. Beitr. Naturk. 4:17. 1789 (Gartenkalender4:189-204. 1784)). Their diameter was ca. 80 mm, length 3 m, and moisture content ca. 25%. The system was tested during the shredding of the branches in real working conditions (the frequency of supplying the branches about 4 min−1 and the mass productivity of about 0.73 t/h). Based on the recorded results, it was found that the LPG fueled engine was characterized by higher carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by 22% and 27%, respectively. A positive effect of using LPG was the reduction of fuel consumption by 28% and carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (HC) emissions by 37% and 83%, respectively. The results of the research show that the use of alternative fuels can bring benefits in terms of CO2 and HC emissions, but at the same time be characterized by an increase in CO and NOx emissions. Further research should be conducted on innovative alternative fuel supply systems, such as in the automotive industry. At the same time, legislators should limit the use of low-quality fuel supply systems with the limits of pollutant emissions in exhaust gases, contributing to the development and economic competitiveness of new fuel injection systems.
Keywords
Alternative Fuels, liquefied petroleum gas LPG, small engine, toxic exhaust gases emission, woodchipper
Suggested Citation
Warguła Ł, Kukla M, Lijewski P, Dobrzyński M, Markiewicz F. Influence of the Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Systems in Woodchippers Powered by Small Engines on Exhaust Emissions and Operating Costs. (2023). LAPSE:2023.27407
Author Affiliations
Warguła Ł: Institute of Machine Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland [ORCID]
Kukla M: Institute of Machine Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland [ORCID]
Lijewski P: Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Drives, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Transport, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland
Dobrzyński M: Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Drives, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Transport, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland
Markiewicz F: Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Drives, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Transport, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland
Journal Name
Energies
Volume
13
Issue
21
Article Number
E5773
Year
2020
Publication Date
2020-11-04
Published Version
ISSN
1996-1073
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PII: en13215773, Publication Type: Journal Article
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doi:10.3390/en13215773
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