Records with Keyword: Alternative Fuels
Showing records 26 to 41 of 41. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
Effect of Adding Emulsifier to Fuel on Work Efficiency and Gas Turbine Emissions
Paweł Niszczota, Marian Gieras
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, CO emission, emulsifier, emulsion fuels, gas turbine, NOx emission, surfactant
In an effort to reduce the emissivity of transport and energy, numerous studies are being carried out on the impact of the combustion of alternative fuels on the emission and operating parameters of propulsion and energy units. One of the observed trends is the use of emulsion fuels. The addition of an emulsifier to an emulsion fuel reduces the interfacial tension between two liquids, which allows obtaining an emulsion fuel with the expected stability. The research conducted on self-ignition engines and gas turbines (TG) does not give an unambiguous answer as to the influence of the use of fuel-water emulsion on CO emissions. One of the reasons for the discrepancy in the obtained results may be the type and amount of the emulsifier used in the emulsion fuel. Tests were carried out on the GTM-120 gas turbine to compare the operating parameters and emissions between the cases in which TG was supplied with three fuel mixtures—the standard fuel for TG (DF) and DF with 2% and 5% emulsifier... [more]
Renewable Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines
Sławomir Wierzbicki, Kamil Duda, Maciej Mikulski
March 6, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: additives for alternative fuels, Alternative Fuels, emission characteristics, engine performance, engine thermodynamics, innovative combustion concepts
The continuous need for systematization and open dissemination of knowledge on Renewable Fuels intended for use in Internal Combustion Engines forms the premise of the presented Special Issue titled “Renewable Fuels for Internal Combustion”. Experts in the field were encouraged to share their latest findings in the form of original research papers, case studies, or short reviews. Works targeting all aspects of the value chain were considered necessary, including the following: (liquid and gaseous) fuel production process, upgrading (catalytic and fractional blending), up to end, valorization in combustion engines (conventional and advanced concepts). Finally, techno-economic analyses aiming to valorize the value chain holistically were warmly encouraged to submit papers in this Special Issue of the Energies Journal. In this book, the reader will find successful submissions that present the latest findings from the discussed research field, encapsulated into nine chapters.
A Comparison of Alternative Fuels for Shipping in Terms of Lifecycle Energy and Cost
Li Chin Law, Beatrice Foscoli, Epaminondas Mastorakos, Stephen Evans
March 6, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, ammonia, decarbonization, Hydrogen, marine fuel, maritime, Methanol
Decarbonization of the shipping sector is inevitable and can be made by transitioning into low- or zero-carbon marine fuels. This paper reviews 22 potential pathways, including conventional Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) marine fuel as a reference case, “blue” alternative fuel produced from natural gas, and “green” fuels produced from biomass and solar energy. Carbon capture technology (CCS) is installed for fossil fuels (HFO and liquefied natural gas (LNG)). The pathways are compared in terms of quantifiable parameters including (i) fuel mass, (ii) fuel volume, (iii) life cycle (Well-To-Wake—WTW) energy intensity, (iv) WTW cost, (v) WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and (vi) non-GHG emissions, estimated from the literature and ASPEN HYSYS modelling. From an energy perspective, renewable electricity with battery technology is the most efficient route, albeit still impractical for long-distance shipping due to the low energy density of today’s batteries. The next best is fossil fuels with CCS (a... [more]
Assumptions of the Energy Policy of the Country versus Investment Outlays Related to the Purchase of Alternative Fuels: Poland as a Case Study
Maciej Ciołek, Izabela Emerling, Katarzyna Olejko, Beata Sadowska, Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, energy policy, investment outlays, mining and coal mining
Nowadays, the importance of activities for the protection of the environment is growing. This approach has a major impact on the current energy and mining policy in Poland. On the one hand, the energy policy has imposed several restrictions to which the Polish economy will have to adapt; on the other, however, it raises great social opposition from professional groups that will be at risk of changing or losing their jobs and income, which implies extensive restructuring processes. These processes involve the decarbonisation of the economy and include, among others: sustainable production and consumption, sustainable municipal management and high quality of life in the city, waste management, sustainable transport, and energy management. The aim of the article is to indicate the importance of investment outlays and costs incurred when purchasing alternative fuels that would replace hard coal in Poland. It is part of the process of adjusting to the requirements of the new energy policy a... [more]
Data-Driven Air-Fuel Path Control Design for Robust RCCI Engine Operation
Jan Verhaegh, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems
March 1, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, combustion engine system control, combustion modelling, data-driven models, dual fuel control, fuel flexibility, model-based control
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a highly efficient and clean combustion concept, which enables the use of a wide range of renewable fuels. Consequently, this promising dual fuel combustion concept is of great interest for realizing climate neutral future transport. RCCI is very sensitive for operating conditions and requires advanced control strategies to guarantee stable and safe operation. For real-world RCCI implementation, we face control challenges related to transients and varying ambient conditions. Currently, a multivariable air−fuel path controller that can guarantee robust RCCI engine operation is lacking. In this work, we present a RCCI engine controller, which combines static decoupling and a diagonal MIMO feedback controller. For control design, a frequency domain-based approach is presented, which explicitly deals with cylinder-to-cylinder variations using data-driven, cylinder-individual combustion models. This approach enables a systematic trade-off... [more]
Impact of Adding Bioethanol and Dimethyl Carbonate on Gasoline Properties
Sibel Osman, Olga Valerica Sapunaru, Ancaelena Eliza Sterpu, Timur Vasile Chis, Claudia I.Koncsag
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, dimethyl carbonate DMC, gasoline volatility, octane number, oxygenated fuel
Bioethanol and dimetyl carbonate (DMC) are considered alternative fuels and additives to the synthesis compounds used now, since bioethanol is a biofuel and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is non-toxic, biodegradable and can be produced in a cleaner way. In this study, the effect of adding dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol to gasoline on the volatility was investigated. The volatility was the main goal of this research but also, the effect on the antiknock properties was studied. Mixtures of gasoline with DMC or with bioethanol were prepared in different proportions of additive: 3%, 6% and 9% v/v. Additionally, mixtures with 3% v/v ethanol plus 3% or 6% v/v DMC, and3% DMC plus 6% v/v ethanol were prepared. For the volatility evaluation, the ASTM distillation curve and vapor pressure of these mixtures were determined experimentally in order to predict the performance of the resulting fuels. When adding oxygenated compounds, the increase in vapor pressure was proportional to the additive qua... [more]
Effect of Ethanol Added to Diesel Fuel on the Range of Fuel Spray
Artur Krzemiński, Adam Ustrzycki
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, diesel fuel, dodecanol, Ethanol, kinematic viscosity, spray macrostructure
The constantly growing number of vehicles sold and operated has resulted in greater contribution of automobiles to global pollution. One way to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and toxic compounds, including the particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx) contained in exhaust gases, is to use alternative fuels. Within this group of fuels, those of plant origin, mainly alcohols, are attracting more and more attention because of their high oxygen content (around 35%), low viscosity, and good atomisation. However, alternative fuels have different physicochemical properties than diesel fuel, and these may affect the formation of the fuel spray, which, in turn, impacts the operation of the internal combustion engine, operating parameters, and the purity of the exhaust gases emitted into the environment. To make sure this type of fuel can be used in compression ignition engines, it is necessary to gain a thorough understanding of the phenomena and relationships occurring during fuel injec... [more]
Using Mathematical Modeling to Evaluate the Performance of a Passenger Car When Operating on Various Fuels
Ivan Manko, Jonas Matijošius, Yevheniy Shuba, Alfredas Rimkus, Serhiy Gutarevych, Viktor Slavin
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, environmental performance, fuel economy, LPG, mathematical model, spark ignition engine
This article presents the results of experimental and computational studies of the performance of a car with a gasoline engine with spark ignition when retrofitted with a system of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). To analyze the impact of the use of LPG instead of gasoline, the mathematical model of the car’s movement according to the modes of the European driving cycle has been refined. It was established that when using LPG for a car in the driving cycle, fuel consumption in energy units decreases by 10.38%. Gas consumption, determined in mass units, is lower than gasoline consumption. In load modes, this difference is about 8% and in idle mode, it reaches 16−18%. The adequacy of the mathematical model is confirmed by experimental studies of the car on modern equipment with the measurement of fuel efficiency and environmental performance in motion, according to the specified cycle. The deviation of the calculated fuel consumption from the results of experimental studies does not exceed... [more]
Estimates of the Decarbonization Potential of Alternative Fuels for Shipping as a Function of Vessel Type, Cargo, and Voyage
Li Chin Law, Epaminondas Mastorakos, Stephen Evans
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, cargo ship, containership, decarbonization, marine fuel, maritime energy, ship design, tanker
Fuel transition can decarbonize shipping and help meet IMO 2050 goals. In this paper, HFO with CCS, LNG with CCS, bio-methanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, ammonia, and electricity were studied using empirical ship design models from a fleet-level perspective and at the Tank-To-Wake level, to assist operators, technology developers, and policy makers. The cargo attainment rate CAR (i.e., cargo that must be displaced due to the low-C propulsion system), the ES (i.e., TTW energy needed per ton*n.m.), the CS (economic cost per ton*n.m.), and the carbon intensity index CII (gCO2 per ton*n.m.) were calculated so that the potential of the various alternatives can be compared quantitatively as a function of different criteria. The sensitivity of CAR towards ship type, fuel type, cargo type, and voyage distance were investigated. All ship types had similar CAR estimates, which implies that considerations concerning fuel transition apply equally to all ships (cargo, containership, tankers). Cargo type... [more]
Review of Energy Consumption by the Fish Farming and Processing Industry in Croatia and the Potential for Zero-Emissions Aquaculture
Tena Bujas, Marija Koričan, Manuela Vukić, Vladimir Soldo, Nikola Vladimir, Ailong Fan
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, decarbonization, energy consumption, mariculture, production, renewable energy sources
Higher energy efficiency and lower environmental impact have become very important aspects in the evaluation of the design and operation of technical systems. The same goes for the fish farming sector, which continuously aims to reduce its environmental footprint as well as its operating costs. This paper reviews the energy needs of the fish farming sector and their impact on the environment, and discusses the possibilities of improving the environmental friendliness of this sector by employing a higher share of renewable energy sources. The fish farming process is divided into its constitutive phases: fish breeding with associated activities, transportation, and handling of grown fish, together with relevant processes; and final processing and distribution to the customers. For these phases, the energy consumption and associated emissions, depending on the energy source, have been assessed. The parts of the process with the highest potential for the integration of alternative powering... [more]
Fuel-Water Emulsion as an Alternative Fuel for Gas Turbines in the Context of Combustion Process Properties—A Review
Paweł Niszczota, Maciej Chmielewski, Marian Gieras
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, CO emission, fuel-water emulsion, gas turbine, NOx emission, smoke emission
Fuel with the addition of water, forming fuel-water emulsions, is a potential way to reduce the emission of pollutants from gas turbines powered by any liquid fuel. This article analyzes the available work on the combustion of fuel-water emulsions in gas turbines. The literature analysis was preceded by a theoretical introduction on fuel-water emulsion, taking into account the factors influencing its micro- and macroscopic properties. The basic features of the agents used to stabilize the emulsion were also discussed and the process of its combustion was described. The analyzed research differed in terms of the test stands on which the experiments were conducted, the fuel constituting the continuous phase of the emulsion, the amount of water contained in the mixture and the method of producing the emulsion. On the basis of the conducted analysis, conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of feeding a gas turbine with a fuel-water emulsion on the emission of nitrogen oxides, carbo... [more]
A Review of the Emulsification Method for Alternative Fuels Used in Diesel Engines
Mohd Fadzli Hamid, Yew Heng Teoh, Mohamad Yusof Idroas, Mazlan Mohamed, Shukriwani Sa’ad, Sharzali Che Mat, Muhammad Khalil Abdullah, Thanh Danh Le, Heoy Geok How, Huu Tho Nguyen
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, emulsified biofuel, microemulsion, neat biofuel, surfactant
Diesel engines are one of the most popular reciprocating engines on the market today owing to their great thermal efficiency and dependability in energy conversion. Growing concerns about the depletion of fossil resources, fluctuating prices in the market, and environmental issues have prompted the search for renewable fuels with higher efficiencies compared with conventional fuels. Fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats has comparable characteristics to diesel fuel, but is renewable, despite being manufactured from various feedstocks. Nevertheless, the direct use of these fuels is strictly prohibited because it will result in many issues in the engine, affecting engine performance and durability, as well as emissions. To make biofuels as efficient as fossil fuels, it is essential to alter their characteristics. The use of emulsification techniques to obtain emulsified biofuels is one of the many ways to modify the fuel characteristics. Emulsification techniques allow for a d... [more]
Sustainable Biofuels from First Three Alcohol Families: A Critical Review
Muhamad Norkhizan Abdullah, Ahmad Fitri Yusop, Rizalman Mamat, Mohd Adnin Hamidi, Kumarasamy Sudhakar, Talal Yusaf
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alcohol, Alternative Fuels, combustion, emission, performance, spark-ignition engine
With its unique qualities, such as infinite supply, high octane number, and capacity to cut greenhouse gas emissions, alcohol is a viable alternative fuel for SI engines. This review article aims to reveal to readers the effects of alcohol on the performance, combustion behavior, and emission characteristics of SI engines by collecting the outcomes from previous research. This article looks at methanol, ethanol, and butanol fuel qualities. The performance of SI engines with butanol, ethanol, and methanol combined with gasoline is investigated in terms of brake torque, brake power, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, mean effective pressure, and coefficient of variation under various conditions. Second, in-cylinder pressure, mass fraction burnt, ignition delay, pressure increases, and heat release rates are also used to evaluate the combustion characteristic. Finally, the article discusses pollutant emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, UHC, and exhaust gas temperatur... [more]
Promising Bioalcohols for Low-Emission Vehicles
Manju Dhakad Tanwar, Felipe Andrade Torres, Ali Mubarak Alqahtani, Pankaj Kumar Tanwar, Yashas Bhand, Omid Doustdar
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, bioalcohols, CI engines, emission, fuel properties
In recent decades, many kinds of research have been conducted on alternative fuels for compression ignition (CI) engines. Low/zero-carbon fuels, such as bioalcohols and hydrogen, are the most promising alternative fuels and are extensively studied because of their availability, ease of manufacturing, and environmental benefits. Using these promising fuels in CI engines is environmentally and economically beneficial. The most common alcohols are methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, propanol, butanol, n-butanol, tert-butanol, iso-butanol, and pentanol. The primary objective of this review paper is to examine the impact of bioalcohols and their blends with conventional diesel fuel in CI engines since these fuels possess characteristic properties that impact overall engine performance and exhaust emissions. This research also indicated that alcohols and blended fuels could be used as fuels in compression ignition engines. Chemical and physical properties of alcohols were examined, such as lubri... [more]
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Incorporated Guide Vane Length with SCC Piston for High-Viscosity Fuel Applications
Mohd Fadzli Hamid, Mohamad Yusof Idroas, Mazlan Mohamed, Shukriwani Sa'ad, Teoh Yew Heng, Sharzali Che Mat, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin, Muhammad Khalil Abdullah
May 4, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biofuels, engine modelling, guide vane, piston
Compression ignition (CI) engines that run on high-viscosity fuels (HVF) like emulsified biofuels generally demonstrate poor engine performance. An engine with a consistently low performance, in the long run, will have a negative effect on its lifespan. Poor combustion in engines occurs mainly due to the production of less volatile, less flammable, denser, and heavier molecules of HVF during injection. This paper proposes a guide vane design (GVD) to be installed at the intake manifold, which is incorporated with a shallow depth re-entrance combustion chamber (SCC) piston. This minor modification will be advantageous in improving the evaporation, diffusion, and combustion processes in the engine to further enhance its performance. The CAD models of the GVD and SCC piston were designed using SolidWorks 2018 while the flow run analysis of the cold flow CI engine was conducted using ANSYS Fluent Version 15. In this study, five designs of the GVD with varying lengths of the vanes from 0.6D... [more]
McMaster University Course Lectures in Energy Systems Engineering
Thomas Alan Adams II
December 17, 2018 (v1)
Lecture slides from the Fall 2018 CHEM ENG 4A03/6A03 Energy System Engineering course at McMaster University are attached. Energy Systems Engineering is a survey course that discusses many ways in which energy products are produced, transported, converted, and consumed in our society today. The lectures correspond to two 50-minute lectures a week for 13 weeks (some slide decks take 2 or 3 lectures to complete). The course cannot cover all energy systems of course, but focus mostly on large-scale or common processes either in use today or currently in development and research. The course takes a chemical engineering perspective so more attention is paid to processes and thermochemical phenomena and less attention is paid to issues related to mechanical engineering or electrical engineering, although there is some intersection.

The lecture slides include the following topics:

1.1. Life Cycle Analysis (basic review)
1.2. Key Metrics in Energy Systems
2.1. Coal Production
2.2. Nat... [more]
Showing records 26 to 41 of 41. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
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