Records Added in October 2022
Records added in October 2022
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Showing records 71 to 95 of 95. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 Last
Methyl Orange Photo-Degradation by TiO2 in a Pilot Unit under Different Chemical, Physical, and Hydraulic Conditions
Andrea Petrella, Danilo Spasiano, Pinalysa Cosma, Vito Rizzi, Marco Race, Maria Cristina Mascolo, Ezio Ranieri
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: azo dye, hydraulic and hydrodynamic parameters, kinetic study, photo-catalysis, TiO2
The photo-catalytic degradation of a textile azo-dye as Methyl Orange was studied in an innovative unit constituted by a channel over which a layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalyst in anatase form was deposited and activated by UVB irradiation. The degradation kinetics were followed after variation of the chemical, physical, and hydraulic/hydrodynamic parameters of the system. For this purpose, the influence of the TiO2 dosage (g/cm3), dye concentration (mg/L), pH of the solution, flow-rate (L/s), hydraulic load (cm), and irradiation power (W) were evaluated on the degradation rates. It was observed that the maximum dosage of TiO2 was 0.79 g/cm3 while for higher dosage a reduction of homogeneity of the cement conglomerate occurred. The Langmuir−Hinshelwood (LH) kinetic model was followed up to a dye concentration around 1 mg/L. It was observed that with the increase of the flow rate, an increase of the degradation kinetics was obtained, while the further increase of the flow-rate as... [more]
Combined Approach to Analysis and Regulation of Thermodynamic Processes in the Energy Technology Complex
Anatoliy Alabugin, Sergei Aliukov, Konstantin Osintsev
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: analog-to-digital methods of signal transmission, approximation methods, approximation of functions of abrupt development, combination of methods, data science tool, energy technology complexes (ETCs)
The purpose of this work is to increase the theoretical and methodological approaches to value and regulate the dynamics of management processes. Application of these dynamics is implemented via methods of improving the quality of management of complex energy technology systems in the organization of recycling processes. As a result of the research, a technological model of a rotary kiln with a division into separate sections corresponding to the combustion zones for the production of cement clinker in recycling technology was developed. Mathematical modeling, analytical calculations of thermodynamic and gas-dynamic processes in the drums of rotating furnaces, and experimental studies were carried out. As a scientific novelty, an approximation of piecewise linear functions is obtained for modeling the processes of improving the quality of control by the criterion of reducing the error of data transmission for monitoring and regulating the thermodynamic parameters of the furnace via ana... [more]
Role of Microalgae in the Recovery of Nutrients from Pig Manure
Ana Sánchez-Zurano, Martina Ciardi, Tomás Lafarga, José María Fernández-Sevilla, Ruperto Bermejo, Emilio Molina-Grima
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, biotechnology, photosynthesis, respirometry, Scenedesmus, waste treatment
Animal production inevitably causes the emission of greenhouse gases and the generation of large amounts of slurry, both representing a serious environmental problem. Photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria have been proposed as alternative strategies to bioremediate agricultural waste while consuming carbon dioxide and producing valuable biomass. The current study assessed the potential of the microalga Scenedesmus sp. to remove nutrients from piggery wastewater (PWW) and the influence of the microalga on the microbial consortia. Maximum N-NH4+ consumption was 55.3 ± 3.7 mg·L−1·day−1 while P-PO43− removal rates were in the range 0.1−1.9 mg·L−1·day−1. N-NH4+ removal was partially caused by the action of nitrifying bacteria, which led to the production of N-NO3−. N-NO3− production values where lower when microalgae were more active. This work demonstrated that the photosynthetic activity of microalgae allows us to increase nutrient removal rates from PWW and t... [more]
Effects of Osmotic Dehydration on the Hot Air Drying of Apricot Halves: Drying Kinetics, Mass Transfer, and Shrinkage
Ivan Pavkov, Milivoj Radojčin, Zoran Stamenković, Krstan Kešelj, Urszula Tylewicz, Péter Sipos, Ondrej Ponjičan, Aleksandar Sedlar
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: apricot, drying, kinetics, mass transfer, Modelling, osmotic dehydration, shrinkage
This study aimed to determine the effects of osmotic dehydration on the kinetics of hot air drying of apricot halves under conditions that were similar to the industrial ones. The osmotic process was performed in a sucrose solution at 40 and 60 °C and concentrations of 50% and 65%. As expected increased temperatures and concentrations of the solution resulted in increased water loss, solid gain and shrinkage. The kinetics of osmotic dehydration were well described by the Peleg model. The effective diffusivity of water 5.50−7.387 × 10−9 m2/s and solute 8.315 × 10−10−1.113 × 10−9 m2/s was calculated for osmotic dehydration. Hot air drying was carried out at 40, 50, and 60 °C with air flow velocities of 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s. The drying time shortened with higher temperature and air velocity. The calculated effective diffusion of water was from 3.002 × 10−10 m2/s to 1.970 × 10−9 m2/s. The activation energy was sensitive to selected air temperatures, so greater air velocity resulted in great... [more]
Equilibrium and Kinetics of CO2 Adsorption by Coconut Shell Activated Carbon Impregnated with Sodium Hydroxide
Chaiyot Tangsathitkulchai, Suravit Naksusuk, Atichat Wongkoblap, Poomiwat Phadungbut, Prapassorn Borisut
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, alkali impregnation, carbon dioxide adsorption
The equilibrium and kinetics of CO2 adsorption at 273 K by coconut-shell activated carbon impregnated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was investigated. Based on nitrogen adsorption isotherms, porous properties of the tested activated carbons decreased with the increase of NaOH loading, with the decrease resulting primarily from the reduction of pore space available for nitrogen adsorption. Equilibrium isotherms of CO2 adsorption by activated carbons impregnated with NaOH at 273 K and the pressure up to 100 kPa displayed an initial part of Type I isotherm with most adsorption taking place in micropores in the range of 0.7−0.9 nm by pore-filling mechanisms. The amount of CO2 adsorbed increased with the increase of NaOH loading and passed through a maximum at the optimum NaOH loading of 180 mg/g. The CO2 isotherm data were best fitted with the three-parameter Sips equation, followed by Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The pore diffusion model, characterized by the effective pore diffusivit... [more]
Chaotic Search Based Equilibrium Optimizer for Dealing with Nonlinear Programming and Petrochemical Application
Abd Allah A. Mousa, Mohammed A. El-Shorbagy, Ibrahim Mustafa, Hammad Alotaibi
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: chaotic mapping, constrained optimization, equilibrium optimizer, non-linear optimization, petrochemical engineering application
In this article, chaotic search based constrained equilibrium optimizer algorithm (CS-CEOA) is suggested by integrating a novel heuristic approach called equilibrium optimizer with a chaos theory-based local search algorithm for solving general non-linear programming. CS-CEOA is consists of two phases, the first one (phase I) aims to detect an approximate solution, avoiding being stuck in local minima. In phase II, the chaos-based search algorithm improves local search performance to obtain the best optimal solution. For every infeasible solution, repair function is implemented in a way such that, a new feasible solution is created on the line segment defined by a feasible reference point and the infeasible solution itself. Due to the fast globally converging of evolutionary algorithms and the chaotic search’s exhaustive search, CS-CEOA could locate the true optimal solution by applying an exhaustive local search for a limited area defined from Phase I. The efficiency of CS-CEOA is stu... [more]
Stabilization of Anaerobic Co-Digestion Process via Constant the Digestate Solids Content
Risu Na, Keisuke Uchitani, Kazuto Yoshida, Naoto Shimizu
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, mass balance, solid content, specific methane yield
The process instability of anaerobic digestion (AD) is a common issue and may result in underperformance or short-term process failure. Extensive research has shown that total solids (TS) content in AD has a significant impact on system stability and performance. However, no study has examined the feasibility of stabilizing the AD process by maintaining constant TS content in the digestate. In this study, an innovative control approach based on constant TS content in the digestate during AD was developed using a mass balance equation. Two levels of TS content (desired values of 4% wet basis (w.b.) and 6% w.b.) were compared with conventional control. The process stability was examined by monitoring digestate components and pH. Substrate-specific methane yield (m3 CH4/kg VS) was used to assess the effectiveness of the controlled conditions. The results showed that the digestate TS content during AD can be controlled and that the digestion process can be stabilized by controlled conditio... [more]
Challenges and Solutions for Biogas Production from Agriculture Waste in the Aral Sea Basin
Olimjon Saidmamatov, Inna Rudenko, Urs Baier, Elbek Khodjaniyazov
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: agriculture, Aral Sea, biogas, digestate, organic waste management, Uzbekistan
Energy plays an essential role in the modern society and can serve as one of the vital parameters of socio-economic development. Despite developments in technology, over three billion persons living in rural parts of the low- and middle-income countries continue to cover their energy needs for cooking through traditional ways by burning biomass resources. This paper as a case study focuses on the Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan, possessing a well-developed agricultural production with high livestock numbers and intensive crop production. The manure of the livestock farms is not used efficiently and the energy supply of the farms depends primarily on centrally produced gas and electricity. Some areas are not yet connected to the gas grid. Agriculture causes huge environmental damages in its current form. The benefit of biogas production would therefore be fivefold: (1) local energy source, (2) mitigation of environmental impacts, (3) reducing CH4-emissions, (4) producing organic fertilize... [more]
Large Eddy Simulation of Film Cooling Involving Compound Angle Holes: Comparative Study of LES and RANS
Seung Il Baek, Joon Ahn
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: adiabatic film cooling effectiveness, compound angle, film cooling, large eddy simulation (LES), reynolds averaged navier–stokes simulation (RANS)
A large eddy simulation (LES) was performed for film cooling in the gas turbine blade involving spanwise injection angles (orientation angles). For a streamwise coolant injection angle (inclination angle) of 35°, the effects of the orientation angle were compared considering a simple angle of 0° and 30°. Two ratios of the coolant to main flow mass flux (blowing ratio) of 0.5 and 1.0 were considered and the experimental conditions of Jung and Lee (2000) were adopted for the geometry and flow conditions. Moreover, a Reynolds averaged Navier−Stokes simulation (RANS) was performed to understand the characteristics of the turbulence models compared to those in the LES and experiments. In the RANS, three turbulence models were compared, namely, the realizable k-ε, k-ω shear stress transport, and Reynolds stress models. The temperature field and flow fields predicted through the RANS were similar to those obtained through the experiment and LES. Nevertheless, at a simple angle, the point at w... [more]
Feasibility of Using VIS/NIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Pesticide Residue Detection in Tomatoes
Araz Soltani Nazarloo, Vali Rasooli Sharabiani, Yousef Abbaspour Gilandeh, Ebrahim Taghinezhad, Mariusz Szymanek, Maciej Sprawka
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: detection, pesticide residues, processing methods, spectroscopy, tomato
The purpose of this work was to investigate the detection of the pesticide residual (profenofos) in tomatoes by using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy. Therefore, the experiments were performed on 180 tomato samples with different percentages of profenofos pesticide (higher and lower values than the maximum residual limit (MRL)) as compared to the control (no pesticide). VIS/near infrared (NIR) spectral data from pesticide solution and non-pesticide tomato samples (used as control treatment) impregnated with different concentrations of pesticide in the range of 400 to 1050 nm were recorded by a spectrometer. For classification of tomatoes with pesticide content at lower and higher levels of MRL as healthy and unhealthy samples, we used different spectral pre-processing methods with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models. The Smoothing Moving Average pre-processing method with the standard error of cross validation (SECV) = 4.2767 was selected as the best model fo... [more]
Isothermal Kinetic Analysis of the Thermal Decomposition of Wood Chips from an Apple Tree
Ivan Vitázek, Martin Šotnar, Stella Hrehová, Kristína Darnadyová, Jan Mareček
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: apple tree, kinetic analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, wood chips
The thermal decomposition of wood chips from an apple tree is studied in a static air atmosphere under isothermal conditions. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis, the values of the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor are 34 ± 3 kJ mol−1 and 391 ± 2 min−1, respectively. These results have also shown that this process can be described by the rate of the first-order chemical reaction. This reaction model is valid only for a temperature range of 250−290 °C, mainly due to the lignin decomposition. The obtained results are used for kinetic prediction, which is compared with the measurement. The results show that the reaction is slower at higher values of degree of conversion, which is caused by the influence of the experimental condition. Nevertheless, the obtained kinetic parameters could be used for the optimization of the combustion process of wood chips in small-scale biomass boilers.
Densification of Biocarbon and Its Effect on CO2 Reactivity
Hamideh Kaffash, Gerrit Ralf Surup, Merete Tangstad
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: charcoal, CO2 reactivity, densification, porosity
Charcoal is an interesting reducing agent because it is produced from biomass which is renewable and does not contribute to global warming, provided that there is a balance between the felling of timber and growth of trees. Biocarbon is a promising alternative to fossil reductants for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing sustainability of the metallurgical industry. In comparison to conventional reductants (i.e., petroleum coke, coal and metallurgical coke), charcoal has a low density, low mechanical properties and high CO2 reactivity, which are undesirable in ferroalloy production. Densification is an efficient way to upgrade biocarbon and improve its undesirable properties. In this study, the deposition of carbon from methane on three types of charcoal has been investigated at 1100 °C. CO2 reactivity, porosity and density of untreated and densified charcoal were measured, and results were compared to metallurgical coke. Surface morphology of the charcoal samples was inves... [more]
Biodiesel Dry Purification Using Unconventional Bioadsorbents
Emilio Arenas, Stephanie M. Villafán-Cáceres, Yetzin Rodríguez-Mejía, Jonathan A. García-Loyola, Omar Masera, Georgina Sandoval
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: bioadsorbents, biodiesel, purification, waste cooking oil
The dry washing method is an alternative to replace water washing, thereby reducing the negative impacts of contamination. However, commercial adsorbents come from industrial processes that, due to their composition, may not be such a sustainable resource in the global biodiesel production process. In this study, the use of organic residues, such as sawdust, coconut fiber, nutshell, rice husk, and water hyacinth fiber, were proposed as bioadsorbents for the purification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Quality parameters such as the acid number, water content, and free and total glycerin content were evaluated and compared with those after purification with commercial adsorbents (Magnesol and Amberlite BD10DRY). Promising results were obtained using sawdust in the purification process, achieving a reduction in the acid number value of 31.3% respect to the unpurified biodiesel. Indeed, the reduction with sawdust was more efficient than with Amberlite BD10DRY (that increased the acid... [more]
Effects of Flow Velocity on Transient Behaviour of Liquid CO2 Decompression during Pipeline Transportation
Chenghuan Xiao, Zhaijun Lu, Liguo Yan, Jiaqiang Wang, Shujian Yao
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: CCS, CO2 decompression, flow velocity, nonequilibrium phase transition, transient behaviour
Investigating the transient behaviour of liquid CO2 decompression is of great importance to ensure the safety of pipeline transportation in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) decompression model based on the non-equilibrium phase transition and Span−Wagner equation of state (EoS) was developed to study the effects of actual flowing state within the pipeline on the transient behaviour of liquid CO2 decompression. Then, the CFD model was verified by comparing the simulated results to test data of a large-scale “shock tube” with an inner diameter of 146.36 mm. The results showed that the evaporation coefficient had a significant impact on the transition behaviour of CO2 decompression, while the condensation coefficient made no difference. When the evaporation coefficient was 15 s−1, the CFD-predicted results were in good agreement with the test results. Moreover, the effects of flow velocity on transient behaviour of liquid CO2 decompression... [more]
Simulation of Flexible Fibre Particle Interaction with a Single Cylinder
Naser Hamedi, Lars-Göran Westerberg
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, fiber flexibility, fiber model, fiber suspension, particulate flow
In the present study, the flow of a fibre suspension in a channel containing a cylinder was numerically studied for a very low Reynolds number. Further, the model was validated against previous studies by observing the flexible fibres in the shear flow. The model was employed to simulate the rigid, semi-flexible, and fully flexible fibre particle in the flow past a single cylinder. Two different fibre lengths with various flexibilities were applied in the simulations, while the initial orientation angle to the flow direction was changed between 45° ≤ θ ≤ 75°. It was shown that the influence of the fibre orientation was more significant for the larger orientation angle. The results highlighted the influence of several factors affecting the fibre particle in the flow past the cylinder.
Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Hydrothermally Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass (Norway Spruce (Picea abies))
Nirmal Ghimire, Rune Bakke, Wenche Hennie Bergland
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: hot water extraction, hydrolysate, lignocellulosic biomass, mesophilic anaerobic digestion, Norway spruce
Hot water extraction (HWE) removes hemicellulose from woody biomass to give improved end products while producing a sugar-rich by-product stream, which requires proper treatment before disposal. Hot water extracted Norway spruce (Picea abies) at two different pretreatment conditions (140 °C for 300 min (H140) and 170 °C for 90 min (H170)) generated hydrolysate as a by-product, which was used in mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) as substrate. H140 gave a higher methane yield (210 NmL/g COD—chemical oxygen demand) than H170 (148 NmL/g COD) despite having a lower concentration of sugars, suggesting that different levels of inhibitors (furans and soluble lignin) and recalcitrant compounds (soluble lignin) affected the methane yield significantly. Organic loads (OLs) had a negative effect on the methane yield, as observed during AD of H170, while such an effect was not observed in the case of H140. This suggests that the decrease in methane yield (32%) of H170 compared to H140 is primaril... [more]
Optimization of the Production of 1,1-Diethoxybutane by Simulated Moving Bed Reactor
Jasper Spitters, Jonathan C. Gonçalves, Rui P. V. Faria, Alírio E. Rodrigues
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: 1,1-diethoxybutane, Adsorption, heterogeneous catalysts, Process Intensification, simulated moving bed reactor
Simulated moving bed technology is applied in the field of pharmaceutical, petrochemical and fine chemistry. It shows capability in separating multicomponent mixtures up to high purities. In this work, an attempt was made to optimize the production of 1,1-diethoxybutane (DEB), using the simulated moving bed technology. A fixed bed model is made with good agreement with experimental results. This fixed bed model was expanded to a simulated moving bed model. This model was used to determine the optimum conditions regarding the switching time and flowrates in each section. From this model, the optimum switching time was found to be 2.4 min, and the ratio of liquid flowrate over the solid flowrate in Section 1Section 2Section 3 and Section 4 of the SMBR was found to be 4.24, 1.77, 3.03 and 1.35, respectively. Under those conditions, the productivity was 19.8 kg DEB per liter of adsorbent per day, and the desorbent consumption was 6.1 L of ethanol per kg of DEB. The results were obtained wi... [more]
Copper Oxide Spectral Emission Detection in Chalcopyrite and Copper Concentrate Combustion
Gonzalo Reyes, Walter Diaz, Carlos Toro, Eduardo Balladares, Sergio Torres, Roberto Parra, Alejandro Vásquez
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: combustion, curve resolution, digital processing, multivariate data analysis, optical sensors, principal component analysis, signal detection, spectroscopy measurements
In this research, the spectral detection of copper oxide is reported from different combustion tests of chalcopyrite particles and copper concentrates. Combustion experiments were performed in a bench reactor. In all the tests, the radiation emitted from the sulfide particle reactions was captured in the VIS−NIR range. The obtained spectral data were processed by using the airPLS (adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares) algorithm to remove their baseline, and principal component analysis (PCA) and the multivariate curve resolution method alternate least squares (MCR-ALS) methods were applied to identify the emission lines or spectral bands of copper oxides. The extracted spectral pattern is directly correlated with the emission profile reported in the literature, evidencing the potential of using spectral analysis techniques on copper sulfide combustion spectra.
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Co-Processing of Bio-Oil and Vacuum Gas Oil in an Existing Refinery
Meirong Shi, Xin Zhao, Qi Wang, Le Wu
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: bio-oil, co-processing, Eco-indicator 99, FCC, LCA, vacuum gas oil
The co-cracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO) and bio-oil has been proposed to add renewable carbon into the co-processing products. However, the environmental performance of the co-processing scheme is still unclear. In this paper, the environmental impacts of the co-processing scheme are calculated by the end-point method Eco-indicator 99 based on the data from actual industrial operations and reports. Three scenarios, namely fast pyrolysis scenario, catalytic pyrolysis scenario and pure VGO scenario, for two cases with different FCC capacities and bio-oil co-processing ratios are proposed to present a comprehensive comparison on the environmental impacts of the co-processing scheme. In Case 1, the total environmental impact for the fast pyrolysis scenario is 1.14% less than that for the catalytic pyrolysis scenario while it is only 26.1% of the total impacts of the pure VGO scenario. In Case 2, the environmental impact of the fast pyrolysis scenario is 0.07% more than that of the catalyti... [more]
Exploration of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIPs) as an Adsorbent for the Enrichment of Trenbolone in Water
Anele Mpupa, Mehmet Dinc, Boris Mizaikoff, Philiswa Nosizo Nomngongo
October 12, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: androgenic hormones, endocrine disruptors, molecularly imprinted polymers, solid-phase extraction, trenbolone
The presence of endocrine disruptors in surface waters can have negative implications on wildlife and humans both directly and indirectly. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was explored for its potential to enhance the UV-Vis determination of trenbolone in water using solid-phase extraction (SPE). The synthesized MIP was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using the MIP resulted in a preconcentration and enrichment factor of 14 and 8, respectively. Trenbolone binding on the MIP was shown to follow a Langmuir adsorption and had a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.5 mg g−1. Interference studies showed that the MIP selectivity was not compromised by interferences in the sample. The MIP could be recycled three times before significant loss in analyte recovery.
GHG Emissions Reduction – Optimal Design and Operation of the Integrated Distributed Energy Systems Cross Different Energy Sectors
Ruonan Li, Vladimir Mahalec
October 6, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: Cross-sector integration, GHG emissions reduction, Optimal design and operation
This research seeks the opportunity to further reduce the minimum GHG emissions achieved by individu-ally operating energy systems in the civic, industrial, and transportation sectors through their integration. Each entity – buildings or industrial plants, is equipped with a set of combined cooling, heating, and pow-er (CCHP) system. At the same time, there is heat and electricity transfer among entities. The integration intends to solve the mismatch between the energy demand and energy provided by the CCHP system, which further increases the operation of the CCHP system and reduces GHG emissions of the entire sys-tem. This research introduces an optimization approach for identifying the optimal design and operation of the integrated system, which provides the maximum GHG emission reduction benefits (represented as GHG emissions reduction percentage (GHGD%)). Compared to existing studies on the integrated system, this research (1) differentiates the temperature of industrial heating de... [more]
Novel approach for low CO2 intensity hydrogen from natural gas
Julian Straus, Vidar T. Skjervold, Rahul Anantharaman, David Berstad
September 20, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, Hydrogen production, Low emission H2, Process integration
Hydrogen from natural gas with CO2 capture can be a key transition technology to a low carbon energy system due to the abundance of natural gas and the possibility to increase the production capacity quickly. However, it is necessary to achieve both a high energy efficiency and a high CO2 capture ratio to be a viable option. The liquefaction of CO2 is one promising separation technology as it provides the captured CO2 in a transportable format. This paper therefore proposes a hydrogen production process with integrated CO2 liquefaction. Efficiencies of up to 84.7 % (Based on the higher heating value) and CO2 capture ratios of up to 97.2 % can be achieved. One advantage of the utilization of CO2 liquefaction as separation technology is furthermore the possibility to incorporate a partial recycle of the flue gas from the separation to the water–gas shift reaction, increasing both energy efficiency and carbon capture ratio.
Eco-technoeconomic analyses of NG-powered SOFC/GT hybrid plants accounting for long-term degradation effects via pseudo-steady-state model simulations
Haoxiang Lai, Thomas Adams II
August 2, 2022 (v1)
Models and codes that were used in this work. Please read the simulation instruction.
Is CCS really so expensive? An analysis of cascading costs and CO2 emissions reduction of industrial CCS implementation applied to a bridge
Sai Gokul Subraveti, Elda Rodriguez, Andrea Ramirez, Simon Roussanaly
July 19, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Bridge, Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS, Cement, Cost-Benefit analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Steel, Technoeconomic Analysis
Carbon capture, transport, and storage (CCS) is an essential technology to mitigate global CO2 emissions from power and industry sectors. Despite the increasing recognition and interest in both the scientific community and stakeholders, current CCS deployment is far behind targeted ambitions. A key reason is that CCS is often perceived as too expensive to reduce CO2 emissions. The costs of CCS have however traditionally been looked at from the industrial plant point of view which does not necessarily reflect the end-user’s perspective. This paper addresses the incomplete view by investigating the impact of implementing CCS in industrial facilities on the overall costs and CO2 emissions of end-user products and services. As an example, this work examines the extent to which an increase in costs of raw materials (cement and steel) due to CCS impact the costs of building a bridge. Our results show that although CCS significantly increases the cost of cement and steel, the subsequent incre... [more]
Moving toward the low-carbon hydrogen economy: Experiences and key learnings from national case studies
Gunhild Reigstad, Simon Roussanaly, Julian Straus, Rahul Anantharaman, Robert de Kler, Maxine Akhurst, Jonathan Pearce, Nixon Sunny, Ward Goldthorpe, Lionel Avignon, Stefan Flamme, Gianfranco Guidati, Evangelos Panos, Christian Bauer
July 7, 2022 (v1)
Keywords: CCS, Energy transition, Integrated analysis, Low carbon hydrogen, Low-carbon economy
The recognised urgency to achieve net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2050, as first presented by the IPCC special report on 1.5 °C Global Warming, has spurred a renewed interest in hydrogen as a companion to electricity for widespread decarbonization of the economy. We present reflections on the estimation of future hydrogen demand, optimization of infrastructure for production, transport and storage, development of viable business cases, and environmental impact evaluations using life cycle assessments. We highlight challenges and opportunities that are common across studies of the business cases for hydrogen in Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Norway. The use of hydrogen in the industry sector is an important driver and could incentivise large-scale hydrogen value chains. In the long-term hydrogen becomes important also for the transport sector. Hydrogen production from natural gas with capture and permanent storage of the produced CO2 (CCS) enables large-sc... [more]
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