Records Added in October 2021
Records added in October 2021
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Showing records 1 to 25 of 52. [First] Page: 1 2 3 Last
Set Membership Estimation for Dynamic Flux Balance Models
Xin Shen, Hector Budman
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: dynamic flux balance model, multiparametric programming, multiplicity, set membership estimation, variable structure system, weighted primal dual method
A set membership estimator (SME) based on limited number of measurements is proposed for estimating metabolite concentrations using dynamic flux balance models (DFBMs). To deal with multiplicity of solutions of the DFBM, a weighted primal dual method is used to find solutions that best fit the data. Multiparametric nonlinear programming is applied to propagate uncertainty in initial concentrations along a batch/fed-batch operation. The proposed method has been applied to E. coli batch and fed-batch fermentation without noise.
Towards the Development of a Diagnostic Test for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Big Data Meets Metabolomics
Juergen Hahn
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, fisher discriminant analysis, kernel partial least squares
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of neurological disorders that present with limited social communication/interaction and restricted, repetitive behaviors/interests. The current estimate is that approximately 1.9% of children in the US are diagnosed with ASD. While this is a high prevalence and the economic burden by ASD is significant, there is still considerable debate regarding the underlying pathophysiology of ASD. Because of this lack of biological knowledge, autism diagnoses are restricted to observational behavioral and psychometric tools. This work takes a step towards the goal of incorporating bio-chemical data into ASD diagnosis by analyzing measurements of metabolite concentrations of the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and transulfuration pathways. Unlike traditional approaches that are based upon comparing differences in individual metabolite concentrations between children with and without an ASD diagnosis, we made use of multivariate classification via... [more]
Dynamic Modelling of T Cell Vaccination Response
Alisa Douglas, Thomas A Adams II, David A Christian
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Dynamic Modelling, stochastic modelling, T cells, vaccine
In our previous work, a mathematical, agent-based dynamic model was developed which simulates the response of the mammalian omentum to a T cell vaccine injection during the expansion phase. The model tracks how each individual naïve T cell interacts with antigen presenting cells, and subsequently primes and divides over an 8-day period following vaccine injection. The model works from first principles; individual phenomena based on experimental observation and theory are incorporated into the model, and the collection of many such phenomena together create a nuanced model of the system as a whole. In this work, we show that the model works well in other relevant tissues, such as the spleen.
Ozone Sterilization of N95 Masks
Mohammad Irfan Malik, Karen Bechwaty, François Guitzhofer, Inès Esma Achouri
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: COVID-19, N95 mask, organic compounds, ozone disinfectant
The rapid spread of the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic at the beginning of 2020 has significantly affect-ed the global economy with severe human and economic losses. Despite the shortage of personal protective equipment, the facemask serves as a fundamental means to protect health care professionals' and re-strict the spread of the coronavirus. However, due to the limited stock of facemasks, many sterilization methods were developed to eliminate the infection and established strategies for fast and repeated reuse without affecting the filtration efficiency. The current study extrapolates the effective utilization of the ozonic sterilization of the N95 mask. First, we demonstrated the potential of ozone as a disinfectant that successfully destructs the organic food colour compounds deposited on the N95 mask; In the quantitative part of this research, the N95 facemask pieces were soaked in diphenylamine solution and later oxidized with ozone under the different intervals of time. Finally,... [more]
A Study of Factors Affecting Iron Uptake from a Functionalized Hibiscus Beverage
Ade O Oyewole, Levente L Diosady
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, iron bioaccessibility, iron deficiency
Iron deficiency accounts for over 50% of the world’s anaemia burden and it is widely prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. In response to the menace of iron deficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa, a commonly consumed beverage, the vibrantly red aqueous extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa, has been functionalized. To determine the conditions that could potentially result in the most iron uptake by consumers of the functional beverage, the present study evaluated the effect of the factors that could influence the bioaccessibility of its iron content in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Hibiscus beverage was fortified to contain, 6 mg iron per 250 mL of the beverage, by adding O.358 mM solution of ferrous sulphate salt to top up the native iron content determined to be 0.93±0.19 mg/ 250 mL. Also, a competing chelating agent - disodium EDTA was added to increase the bioaccessibility of iron from the beverage. Previous results showed the feasibility of releasing iron from th... [more]
Lessons Learned from Three Decades of Global Automation Experience Across Five Industries
Lane Desborough
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: artificial pancreas, automated insulin delivery, diabetes
My current work on Automated Insulin Delivery (the so-called “artificial pancreas”) directly benefits from two decades of experience gained implementing and remotely monitoring automation in complex and challenging industrial cyberphysical systems all over the world; systems upon which society depends. This talk will cover topics including experimentation, modeling, simulation, and outcome measure sample statistics, as well as controller design considerations including human factors, objective functions, and final control element challenges.
Detection and Diagnosis of Ring Formation in Rotary Lime Kilns
Lee D Rippon, Barry Hirtz, Carl Sheehan, Travis Reinheimer, Cilius van der Merwe, Philip Loewen, Bhushan Gopaluni
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: data visualization, Fault Detection, fault diagnosis, process monitoring, pulp and paper, rotary kiln
Rotary lime kilns are large-scale, energy-intensive unit operations that serve critical functions in a variety of industrial processes including cement production, pyrometallurgy, and kraft pulping. As massive expensive vessels that operate at high temperatures it is imperative from economic, environmental, and safety perspectives to optimize preventative maintenance and production efficiency. To achieve these objectives rotary kilns are increasingly outfitted with more sophisticated sensing technology that can provide additional operating insights. Although increasingly intricate data is collected from industrial operations the extent to which value is extracted from this data is often far from optimal. Our research aims to improve this situation by developing data analytics methods that leverage advanced industrial sensor data to address outstanding process faults. Specifically, this research investigates the use of infrared thermal cameras to detect and diagnose ring formation in r... [more]
Constant Power Generation by Scheduling Installation of SOFC Modules Operating in Varying Power Mode
Mina Naeini, Thomas A Adams, James S Cotton
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: constant power output, optimal operating conditions, optimal operating mode, performance degradation, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
In this paper, producing constant power load of 550 MW from systems of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operating in varying power output mode was investigated. This is useful because previous research has shown that individual cells can have significant lifetime extensions when operated according to certain dynamic trajectories in which power production decreases over time. In this study, we determined that a constant net power output of a system comprised of many individual SOFC modules can be achieved by scheduling the installation and operation of each SOFC module in a particular manner. All the modules were operated under the optimal operating conditions obtained in our previous optimization study where power output of each module declined over time. The dynamic degradation of SOFCs was taken into ac-count by using a detailed mathematical model of long-term performance degradation as a function of operating conditions. The result is a system in which every 5 days, one new SOFC modul... [more]
Bypass Control of HEN Under Uncertainty in Inlet Temperature of Hot Stream
Chaitanya Manchikatla, Zukui Li, Biao Huang
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Affine Control Policy, Heat Exchanger Network, Model Predictive Control, Uncertain Optimization
The dynamic control of Heat Exchanger Network is significant for developing energy efficient and safe industrial processes. In this project, the hot stream's inlet temperature is considered uncertain because it is common in industries. The cold stream is bypassed around the heat exchanger. This project aims to track the setpoint temperature of the mixed stream by manipulating the bypass fraction of the cold stream around the Heat Exchanger given uncertainty in the inlet temperature of the hot stream. The control is implemented in Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) framework. The uncertainty in the optimal control problem (OCP)is dealt by using scenario tree based approximation as well as affine policy based method. The model of the system considered is based on the first principles model, i.e. dynamic model of shell and tube heat exchanger. The Orthogonal collocation technique is used to discretize the first principles model into the system of algebraic equations. The results... [more]
Purification Methods for Captured CO2 from Petroleum Coke Oxy-Combustion Power Plants
Tia Ghantous, Ikenna J Okeke, Thomas A Adams II
October 21, 2021 (v2)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, eco-technoeconomic analysis, oxy-combustion, Petroleum Coke
We present eco-technoeconomic analyses of four processes, including two novel designs, for the purification of captured CO2 from flue gas for a petroleum coke (petcoke) oxy-combustion power plant operated with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). A base case petcoke oxy-combustion design obtained from a previous study consisting of flue gas water removal using condensation was used in this study. Other purification processes evaluated consist of a cryogenic distillation petcoke oxy-combustion with CCS, an oxygen deficient petcoke oxy-combustion with CCS and a catalytic dehydration petcoke oxy-combustion via hydrogen conversion with CCS. An eco-technoeconomic analysis considering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), thermal efficiency and CO2 product purity to meet pipe-line specifications, was conducted on all purification candidates. This revealed that base case design did not meet the CO2 pipeline specifications. The highest LCOE was attributed to... [more]
Adaptive State Feedback Stabilization of Generalized Hamiltonian Systems with Unstructured Components
Seyedabbas Alavi, Nicolas Hudon
October 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Adaptive stabilization, Hamiltonian system, Lyapunov stability, Parameter Estimation
This paper considers the problem of adaptive state feedback controller design for stabilizing the generalized Hamiltonian systems with unstructured components. This class of models enables one to exploit the dissipative-conservative structure of generalized Hamiltonian systems for feedback control design while relaxing the burden of deriving an exact structured model representation. First, an efficient adaptation law is designed such that a correct value of parameters is estimated. Assuming that the overall system is stabilizable, and under mild assumptions on the unstructured part of the dynamics, a stabilizing adaptive control law is designed to stabilize systems to the desired steady-state. The stability of the closed-loop system is demonstrated using Lyapunov stability arguments. A numerical illustration of the proposed approach is presented to demonstrate the potential of the design method.
CSChE Systems & Control Transactions Volume 1
Thomas A Adams II
October 21, 2021 (v2)
Subject: Uncategorized
Keywords: Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference 2021, Systems & Control Division Conference Proceedings
Selected Extended Abstracts from the
 Systems & Control Division Sessions of the 
71st Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference
, October 24-27, 2021, Montréal, Québec
Improving Transactional Data System Based on an Edge Computing−Blockchain−Machine Learning Integrated Framework
Zeinab Shahbazi, Yung-Cheol Byun
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: blockchain, edge computing, Industrial Internet of Things, Machine Learning, smart manufacturing
The modern industry, production, and manufacturing core is developing based on smart manufacturing (SM) systems and digitalization. Smart manufacturing’s practical and meaningful design follows data, information, and operational technology through the blockchain, edge computing, and machine learning to develop and facilitate the smart manufacturing system. This process’s proposed smart manufacturing system considers the integration of blockchain, edge computing, and machine learning approaches. Edge computing makes the computational workload balanced and similarly provides a timely response for the devices. Blockchain technology utilizes the data transmission and the manufacturing system’s transactions, and the machine learning approach provides advanced data analysis for a huge manufacturing dataset. Regarding smart manufacturing systems’ computational environments, the model solves the problems using a swarm intelligence-based approach. The experimental results present the edge compu... [more]
Formulation and Stability of Cellulose-Based Delivery Systems of Raspberry Phenolics
Josipa Vukoja, Ivana Buljeta, Anita Pichler, Josip Šimunović, Mirela Kopjar
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, cellulose/raspberry encapsulates, inhibition of α-amylase, phenolics
Encapsulation of bioactives is a tool to prepare their suitable delivery systems and ensure their stability. For this purpose, cellulose was selected as carrier of raspberry juice phenolics and freeze-dried cellulose/raspberry encapsulates (C/R_Es) were formulated. Influence of cellulose amount (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) and time (15 or 60 min) on the complexation of cellulose and raspberry juice was investigated. Obtained C/R_Es were evaluated for total phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, inhibition of α-amylase and color. Additionally, encapsulation was confirmed by FTIR. Stability of C/R_Es was examined after 12 months of storage at room temperature. Increasing the amount of cellulose during formulation of C/R_E from 2.5% to 10%, resulted in the decrease of content of total phenolics and anthocyanins. Additionally, encapsulates formulated by 15 min of complexation had a higher amount of investigated compounds. This tendency was retained after storage. The highest antioxidan... [more]
Influence of Processing Parameters on Phenolic Compounds and Color of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine Concentrates Obtained by Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration
Ivana Ivić, Mirela Kopjar, Lidija Jakobek, Vladimir Jukić, Suzana Korbar, Barbara Marić, Josip Mesić, Anita Pichler
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Cabernet Sauvignon concentrate, nanofiltration, phenolic compounds, reverse osmosis
In this study, Cabernet Sauvignon red wine was subjected to reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes at four different pressures (25, 35, 45, and 55 bar) and two temperature regimes (with and without cooling). The aim was to obtain concentrates with a higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and to determine the influence of two membrane types (Alfa Laval RO98pHt M20 for reverse osmosis and NF M20 for nanofiltration) and different operating conditions on phenolics retention. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, monomeric anthocyanin contents, and antioxidant activity were determined spectrophotometrically. Flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids were analyzed on a high-performance liquid chromatography system and sample colour was measured by chromometer. The results showed that the increase in applied pressure and decrease in retentate temperature were favorable for higher phenolics retention. Retention of individual compounds depended on their chemical structure, membrane pr... [more]
Development of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan/Basil Oil Active Packaging Films via a Melt-Extrusion Process Using Novel Chitosan/Basil Oil Blends
Constantinos E. Salmas, Aris E. Giannakas, Maria Baikousi, Areti Leontiou, Zoe Siasou, Michael A. Karakassides
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: active packaging, antioxidant properties, barrier properties, basil oil, chitosan, films, PLLA
Following the global trend toward a cyclic economy, the development of a fully biodegradable active packaging film is the target of this work. An innovative process to improve the mechanical, antioxidant, and barrier properties of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan films is presented using essential basil oil extract. A Chitosan/Basil oil blend was prepared via a green evaporation/adsorption method as a precursor for the development of the Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan/Basil Oil active packaging film. This Chitosan/Basil Oil blend was incorporated directly in the Poly(L-Lactic Acid) matrix with various concentrations. Modification of the chitosan with the Basil Oil improves the blending with the Poly(L-Lactic Acid) matrix via a melt-extrusion process. The obtained Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan/Basil Oil composite films exhibited advanced food packaging properties compared to those of the Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan films without Basil Oil addition. The films with 5%wt and 10%wt Chitosan/Basil... [more]
Pyrometallurgical Lithium-Ion-Battery Recycling: Approach to Limiting Lithium Slagging with the InduRed Reactor Concept
Stefan Windisch-Kern, Alexandra Holzer, Christoph Ponak, Harald Raupenstrauch
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: carbothermal reduction, lithium-ion-batteries, pyrometallurgical recycling
The complexity of the waste stream of spent lithium-ion batteries poses numerous challenges on the recycling industry. Pyrometallurgical recycling processes have a lot of benefits but are not able to recover lithium from the black matter since lithium is slagged due to its high oxygen affinity. The presented InduRed reactor concept might be a promising novel approach, since it does not have this disadvantage and is very flexible concerning the chemical composition of the input material. To prove its basic suitability for black matter processing, heating microscope experiments, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry have been conducted to characterize the behavior of nickel rich cathode materials (LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 and LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2) as well as black matter from a pretreatment process under reducing conditions. Another experimental series in a lab scale InduRed reactor was further used to investigate achievable transfer coefficients for the metals... [more]
State-of-the-Art Char Production with a Focus on Bark Feedstocks: Processes, Design, and Applications
Ali Umut Şen, Helena Pereira
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: bark, charcoal, gasification, hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis, torrefaction
In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in char production from lignocellulosic biomass due to the fact of char’s interesting technological properties. Global char production in 2019 reached 53.6 million tons. Barks are among the most important and understudied lignocellulosic feedstocks that have a large potential for exploitation, given bark global production which is estimated to be as high as 400 million cubic meters per year. Chars can be produced from barks; however, in order to obtain the desired char yields and for simulation of the pyrolysis process, it is important to understand the differences between barks and woods and other lignocellulosic materials in addition to selecting a proper thermochemical method for bark-based char production. In this state-of-the-art review, after analyzing the main char production methods, barks were characterized for their chemical composition and compared with other important lignocellulosic materials. Following these steps, previ... [more]
Fault Monitoring of Chemical Process Based on Sliding Window Wavelet DenoisingGLPP
Fan Yang, Yuancun Cui, Feng Wu, Ridong Zhang
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: global local preserving projections, principal component analysis, process monitoring, sliding window, Tennessee Eastman, wavelet denoising
In industrial process fault monitoring, it is very important to collect accurate data, but in the actual process, there are often various noises that are difficult to eliminate in the collected data due to sensor accuracy, measurement errors, or human factors. Existing statistical process monitoring methods often ignore the problem of data noise. To solve this problem, a sliding window wavelet denoising-global local preserving projections (SWWD-GLPP) process monitoring method is proposed. In the offline stage, the wavelet denoising method is used to denoise the offline data, and then, the GLPP method is used for offline modeling, and then, the control limit is obtained by the kernel density estimation method. In the online phase, the sliding window wavelet denoising method is used to denoise the online data in real time. Then, use the model of the GLPP method to find the statistics, compare them with the control limit, judge the fault situation, and finally, use the contribution graph... [more]
Integration of Artificial Intelligence into Biogas Plant Operation
Samet Cinar, Senem Onen Cinar, Nils Wieczorek, Ihsanullah Sohoo, Kerstin Kuchta
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, Artificial Intelligence, automation, biogas plant, predictive monitoring, process monitoring, process optimization
In the biogas plants, organic material is converted to biogas under anaerobic conditions through physical and biochemical processes. From supply of the raw material to the arrival of the products to customers, there are serial processes which should be sufficiently monitored for optimizing the efficiency of the whole process. In particular, the anaerobic digestion process, which consists of sequential complex biological reactions, requires improved monitoring to prevent inhibition. Conventional implemented methods at the biogas plants are not adequate for monitoring the operational parameters and finding the correlation between them. As Artificial Intelligence has been integrated in different areas of life, the integration of it into the biogas production process will be inevitable for the future of the biogas plant operation. This review paper first examines the need for monitoring at the biogas plants with giving details about the process and process monitoring as well. In the follow... [more]
Research on the Dynamic Responses of Simply Supported Horizontal Pipes Conveying Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Slug Flow
Gang Liu, Zongrui Hao, Yueshe Wang, Wanlong Ren
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: dynamic responses, intermittent, simply supported pipe, two-phase slug flow
The dynamic responses of simply supported horizontal pipes conveying gas-liquid two-phase slug flow are explored. The intermittent characteristics of slug flow parameters are mainly considered to analyze the dynamic model of the piping system. The results show that the variations of the midpoint transverse displacement could vary from periodic-like motion to a kind of motion whose amplitude increases as time goes on if increasing the superficial gas velocity. Meanwhile, the dynamic responses have certain relations with the vibration acceleration. By analyzing the parameters in the power spectrum densities of vibration acceleration such as the number of predominant frequencies and the amplitude of each peak frequency, the dynamic behaviors of the piping system like periodicity could be calculated expediently.
Films and Materials Derived from Aminomalononitrile
Helmut Thissen, Richard A. Evans, Vincent Ball
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: aminomalononitrile, biomaterials, prebiotic chemistry, versatile coatings
In recent years major advances in surface chemistry and surface functionalization have been performed through the development, most often inspired by living organisms, of versatile methodologies. Among those, the contact of substrates with aminomalononitrile (AMN) containing solutions at pH = 8.5 allows a conformal coating to be deposited on the surface of all known classes of material. Since AMN is a molecule probably formed in the early atmosphere of our planet and since HCN-based compounds have been detected on many comets and Titan (Saturn’s largest moon) it is likely that such molecules will open a large avenue in surface functionalization mostly for bio-applications. This mini review describes the state of the art of AMN-based coatings from their deposition kinetics, composition, chemical reactivity, hypothetical structure to their first applications as biomaterials. Finally, the AMN-based versatile coatings are compared to other kinds of versatile coating based on catecholamines... [more]
Influence of the Ni-Co/Al-Mg Catalyst Loading in the Continuous Aqueous Phase Reforming of the Bio-Oil Aqueous Fraction
Pablo Lozano, Ana I. Simón, Lucía García, Joaquín Ruiz, Miriam Oliva, Jesús Arauzo
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: acetic acid, acetol, aqueous fraction, aqueous phase reforming, bio-oil, Butanol, Ni catalyst
The effect of catalyst loading in the Aqueous Phase Reforming (APR) of bio-oil aqueous fraction has been studied with a Ni-Co/Al-Mg coprecipitated catalyst. Because of the high content of water in the bio-oil aqueous fraction, APR could be a useful process to convert this fraction into valuable products. Experiments of APR with continuous feeding of aqueous solution of acetol, butanol and acetic acid as the only compound, together with a simulated and a real aqueous fraction of bio-oil, were carried out. Liquid products in the liquid effluent of the APR model compounds were quantified and the reaction pathways were revised. The increase of catalyst loading produced an increase of gas production and a gas with higher alkanes content. Acetol was the compound with the highest reactivity while the conversion of acetic acid was very low. The presence of acetic acid in the feed caused catalyst deactivation.
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of a Pretreated Shape Memory Alloy Wire in a Self-Centering Steel Brace
Bo Zhang, Sizhi Zeng, Fenghua Tang, Shujun Hu, Qiang Zhou, Yigang Jia
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: energy dissipation capacity, initial strain, loading rate, shape memory alloy (SMA), strain amplitude
As a stimulus-sensitive material, the difference in composition, fabrication process, and influencing factors will have a great effect on the mechanical properties of a superelastic Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA) wire, so the seismic performance of the self-centering steel brace with SMA wires may not be accurately obtained. In this paper, the cyclic tensile tests of a kind of SMA wire with a 1 mm diameter and special element composition were tested under multi-working conditions, which were pretreated by first tensioning to the 0.06 strain amplitude for 40 cycles, so the mechanical properties of the pretreated SMA wires can be simulated in detail. The accuracy of the numerical results with the improved model of Graesser’s theory was verified by a comparison to the experimental results. The experimental results show that the number of cycles has no significant effect on the mechanical properties of SMA wires after a certain number of cyclic tensile training. With the loading rate incre... [more]
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Rotating Annular VUV/UV Photoreactor for Water Treatment
Minghan Luo, Wenjie Xu, Xiaorong Kang, Keqiang Ding, Taeseop Jeong
October 14, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, MB, photoreactor, VUV, water treatment
The ultraviolet photochemical degradation process is widely recognized as a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and sustainable technology for water treatment. This study integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a photoreactive kinetic model to investigate the effects of flow characteristics on the contaminant degradation performance of a rotating annular photoreactor with a vacuum-UV (VUV)/UV process performed in continuous flow mode. The results demonstrated that the introduced fluid remained in intensive rotational movement inside the reactor for a wide range of inflow rates, and the rotational movement was enhanced with increasing influent speed within the studied velocity range. The CFD modeling results were consistent with the experimental abatement of methylene blue (MB), although the model slightly overestimated MB degradation because it did not fully account for the consumption of OH radicals from byproducts generated in the MB decomposition processes. The OH radical... [more]
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