Records with Keyword: Fossil Fuel
The Trend and Status of Energy Resources and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Malaysia Power Generation Mix
Siti Norasyiqin Abdul Latif, Meng Soon Chiong, Srithar Rajoo, Asako Takada, Yoon-Young Chun, Kiyotaka Tahara, Yasuyuki Ikegami
April 19, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: electricity, energy mix, Fossil Fuel, greenhouse gases, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, specific GHG emission
Environmental issues in energy policy, especially global warming, have received more attention lately than ever before. Excessive dependence on fossil fuels, deforestation, and land degradation are the three main factors that lead to increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Consequently, the global average temperature has doubled compared to anticipation. Various international protocols and agendas have been established, pledged to restore the global average temperature to the 1990 level. As a result, energy policies worldwide have also undergone various transformations to align with these protocols since then. As a developing nation, Malaysian’s electricity demand has continuously grown in the past two decades. To date, the electricity sector is still dominated by fossil fuels. Government incentives have been the most influential factor in the nation’s energy mix trend. Several energy policies implemented throughout the past 22 years have seen the shift from natural gas to coal power... [more]
Prospects of Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems
A.G. Olabi, Tabbi Wilberforce, Enas Taha Sayed, Khaled Elsaid, Mohammad Ali Abdelkareem
March 29, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: climate change, combined heat and power system, Fossil Fuel, Optimization, PEM fuel cell
Combined heat and power (CHP) in a single and integrated device is concurrent or synchronized production of many sources of usable power, typically electric, as well as thermal. Integrating combined heat and power systems in today’s energy market will address energy scarcity, global warming, as well as energy-saving problems. This review highlights the system design for fuel cell CHP technologies. Key among the components discussed was the type of fuel cell stack capable of generating the maximum performance of the entire system. The type of fuel processor used was also noted to influence the systemic performance coupled with its longevity. Other components equally discussed was the power electronics. The thermal and water management was also noted to have an effect on the overall efficiency of the system. Carbon dioxide emission reduction, reduction of electricity cost and grid independence, were some notable advantages associated with fueling cell combined heat and power systems. Des... [more]
Contributions of Solar Photovoltaic Systems to Environmental and Socioeconomic Aspects of National Development—A Review
Oliver O. Apeh, Edson L. Meyer, Ochuko K. Overen
March 28, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: efficiency, environment, Fossil Fuel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, solar photovoltaic system
Presently, the world is undergoing exciting haste to install photovoltaic (PV) systems in industry, residential/commercial buildings, transportation, deserts, street lights, and many other applications. Solar photovoltaic energy systems are clean and reliable energy sources that are unlimited, unlike their fossil fuel counterparts. The energy market is rapidly growing globally with newly and cumulative installed capacities of about 37.6 GW and 139.6 GW, accounting for 53% and 55%, respectively, in 2017, making it one of the fastest-growing industries. The cumulative photovoltaic installations are projected to have reached 600 GW worldwide and are projected to reach 4500 GW by 2050 because of the strategies and policies of many countries. In 2021, more than three-quarters of the developed countries are now home to one solar installation. This article evaluates a critical and extensive review of the contributions of solar photovoltaic systems to national development. The approach follows... [more]
The Environmental Kuznets Curve and the Energy Mix: A Structural Estimation
Anelí Bongers
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: emissions, energy mix, environmental dynamic general equilibrium model, Environmental Kuznets Curve, Fossil Fuel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis establishes the existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and environmental deterioration. This paper studies the relationship between the energy mix and pollutant emissions and uses an environmental dynamic general equilibrium model to carry out a structural estimation of the EKC hypothesis. The model considers a three-input production function, including energy. Energy is a composite of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The flow of pollutant emissions depends on fossil fuels’ consumption, which accumulates in a pollution stock, resulting in a negative externality that adversely impacts aggregate productivity. Simulations of the model support the existence of a steady-state EKC relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the stock of pollution, where the negative slope side of the curve is very flat. We find that (i) the EKC hypothesis is only fulfilled when the elasticity of substitution between f... [more]
Recent Advances in Biomass Pretreatment Technologies for Biohydrogen Production
Harshita Singh, Sakshi Tomar, Kamal A. Qureshi, Mariusz Jaremko, Pankaj K. Rai
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: biohydrogen, feedstock, Fermentation, Fossil Fuel, global warming, substrate pretreatment
Hydrogen is an economical source of clean energy that has been utilized by industry for decades. In recent years, demand for hydrogen has risen significantly. Hydrogen sources include water electrolysis, hydrocarbon steam reforming, and fossil fuels, which emit hazardous greenhouse gases and therefore have a negative impact on global warming. The increasing worldwide population has created much pressure on natural fuels, with a growing gap between demand for renewable energy and its insufficient supply. As a result, the environment has suffered from alarming increases in pollution levels. Biohydrogen is a sustainable energy form and a preferable substitute for fossil fuel. Anaerobic fermentation, photo fermentation, microbial and enzymatic photolysis or combinations of such techniques are new approaches for producing biohydrogen. For cost-effective biohydrogen production, the substrate should be cheap and renewable. Substrates including algal biomass, agriculture residue, and wastewate... [more]
Does Fossil Fuel Financing Affect Banks’ ESG Ratings?
Michał Bernardelli, Zbigniew Korzeb, Paweł Niedziółka
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bank, ESG rating, Fossil Fuel
The study was conducted on a sample of 60 of the world’s biggest banks financing the largest fossil fuel entities. The aim is to identify the determinants of ESG ratings of these banks and to determine how relevant their actual credit and investment exposure is to this assessment. The indirect objective is also an examination of whether coal power financing affects ESG ratings. Two logistic regression models have been explored: one dedicated to the identification of high ESG risk banks and the second to predict low ESG risk, which thereafter were combined into one final model. The results indicate that an increase in the Sustainable Development Index (SDI) translates into a decline in the odds of being assigned to the high-risk ESG group relative to the probability of being qualified to the low- or medium-risk ESG group. This study is the first to analyse the impact of actual exposures of the world’s largest banks to the fossil fuels sector on their ESG ratings. The value added is the... [more]
Heat Pumps, Wood Biomass and Fossil Fuel Solutions in the Renovation of Buildings: A Techno-Economic Analysis Applied to Piedmont Region (NW Italy)
Edoardo Ruffino, Bruno Piga, Alessandro Casasso, Rajandrea Sethi
March 1, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, cooling, Fossil Fuel, greenhouse gas, heat pump, heating, LCOH, life-cycle cost
The levelized cost of heat (LCOH) and the technical feasibility in the specific context of building construction or renovation are the major drivers of users’ choices for space heating and cooling solutions. In this work, the LCOH was assessed for the most diffused heating technologies in Piedmont (NW Italy): that is, fossil fuels (methane, heating oil and liquefied petroleum gas—LPG), wood biomass (wood logs and pellet) and heat pumps (air-source and ground-source), both in heating-only and in a heating and cooling configuration. A sensitivity analysis of the main LCOH drivers was performed to assess whether and how each technology is vulnerable to energy price and upfront cost changes. The results show that heat pumps are competitive against gas boilers, but they are heavily dependent on refurbishment incentives and penalized by the high electricity prices in Italy; on the other hand, wood biomasses are competitive even in the absence of incentives. The analysis confirmed that LPG an... [more]
The Effect of the Swiss CO2 Levy on Heating Fuel Demand of Private Real Estate Owners
Nicola Francescutto, Nicole A. Mathys
March 1, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: carbon tax, energy consumption, Fossil Fuel, household panel, policy evaluation, price elasticity, pseudo-panel, Switzerland, tax elasticity
To effectively mitigate climate change, it is crucial to better understand the reaction of fossil-fuel demand to price and tax changes, and more precisely to climate policy instruments such as a carbon levy. The Swiss CO2 levy on heating fuels was introduced in 2008 at CHF 12/tCO2eq, and was increased steadily up to CHF 84/tCO2eq during the period of 2016/2017. This paper investigated the effectiveness of the levy as an instrument to reduce heating fuel demand, and hence carbon emissions, of private real estate owners. The Swiss Household Budget Survey 2006−2017 constituted the main data source. Before−after and pseudo-panel regressions were used to capture the CO2 levy’s effects, and a large set of household characteristics, as well as climatic conditions, were controlled for. No significant effects in the first two policy periods of 2008−2013 were found. Over the period of 2014−2017, a significant reduction in house owners’ heating fuel demand of up to 14% with respect to 2006−2007 w... [more]
COVID-19 Impact on the Energy Sector in the United States (2020)
Warren S. Vaz
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, emissions, energy consumption, energy sector, expenditures, Fossil Fuel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, United States
This study comprehensively examines the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on energy consumption in the United States. The purpose of the study is to quantify the effects of lockdowns and pandemic disruptions on energy consumption trends in order to inform policymakers and utilities on how to prepare for such events in the future. The study focuses on 2020 data collected by the Federal government. The effects are quantified using descriptive statistics. State-wise and sector-wise data have been presented using plots and heat maps. Related metrics like COVID case data, GDP, emissions, and expenditures were also presented. The total energy consumption fell by 7.5% in 2020. Besides Alaska, every state saw a decrease in energy, with some as high as 26%. The residential sector had the most states that saw an increase in energy, stemming from lockdowns and working from home. Similarly, petroleum consumption saw a decrease of 11.4% as a result of a decrease in travel. Biomass-related renewable... [more]
Advances in Biomass Co-Combustion with Fossil Fuels in the European Context: A Review
Miroslav Variny, Augustín Varga, Miroslav Rimár, Ján Janošovský, Ján Kizek, Ladislav Lukáč, Gustáv Jablonský, Otto Mierka
January 24, 2022 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: ash, biomass pretreatment, co-combustion, Fossil Fuel, greenhouse gases, oxy-combustion, reburning, synergy
Co-combustion of biomass-based fuels and fossil fuels in power plant boilers, utility boilers, and process furnaces is a widely acknowledged means of efficient heat and power production, offering higher power production than comparable systems with sole biomass combustion. This, in combination with CO2 and other greenhouse gases abatement and low specific cost of system retrofit to co-combustion, counts among the tangible advantages of co-combustion application. Technical and operational issues regarding the accelerated fouling, slagging, and corrosion risk, as well as optimal combustion air distribution impact on produced greenhouse gases emissions and ash properties, belong to intensely researched topics nowadays in parallel with the combustion aggregates design optimization, the advanced feed pretreatment techniques, and the co-combustion life cycle assessment. This review addresses the said topics in a systematic manner, starting with feed availability, its pretreatment, fuel prope... [more]
McMaster University Course Lectures in Energy Systems Engineering
Thomas Alan Adams II
December 17, 2018 (v1)
Lecture slides from the Fall 2018 CHEM ENG 4A03/6A03 Energy System Engineering course at McMaster University are attached. Energy Systems Engineering is a survey course that discusses many ways in which energy products are produced, transported, converted, and consumed in our society today. The lectures correspond to two 50-minute lectures a week for 13 weeks (some slide decks take 2 or 3 lectures to complete). The course cannot cover all energy systems of course, but focus mostly on large-scale or common processes either in use today or currently in development and research. The course takes a chemical engineering perspective so more attention is paid to processes and thermochemical phenomena and less attention is paid to issues related to mechanical engineering or electrical engineering, although there is some intersection.

The lecture slides include the following topics:

1.1. Life Cycle Analysis (basic review)
1.2. Key Metrics in Energy Systems
2.1. Coal Production
2.2. Nat... [more]
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