Records Added in November 2018
Records added in November 2018
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Showing records 1 to 25 of 358. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Correction: Yang, W.; Yang, J.; Guo, W.; Zeng, W.; Wang, C.; Saarinen, L.; Norrlund, P. A Mathematical Model and Its Application for Hydro Power Units under Different Operating Conditions. Energies 2015, 8, 10260⁻10275
Weijia Yang, Jiandong Yang, Wencheng Guo, Wei Zeng, Chao Wang, Linn Saarinen, Per Norrlund
November 28, 2018 (v1)
The authors wish to make the following corrections to the published paper [1].[...]
Coordinated Control of Wave Energy Converters Subject to Motion Constraints
Liguo Wang, Jens Engström, Mats Leijon, Jan Isberg
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: coordinated control, frequency domain, motion constraints, optimal damping, wave energy farm
In this paper, a generic coordinated control method for wave energy converters is proposed, and the constraints on motion amplitudes and the hydrodynamic interaction between converters are considered. The objective of the control problem is to maximize the energy converted from ocean waves, and this is achieved by coordinating the power take-off (PTO) damping of each wave energy converter in the frequency domain in each sea state. In a case study, a wave energy farm consisting of four converters based on the concept developed by Uppsala University is studied. In the solution, motion constraints, including constraints on the amplitudes of displacement and velocity, are included. Twelve months of sea states, based on measured wave data at the Lysekil test site on the Swedish west coast, are used in the simulation to evaluate the performance of the wave energy farm using the new method. Results from the new coordinated control method and traditional control method are compared, indicating... [more]
Optimal Electric and Heat Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially-Coordinated Operations
Nah-Oak Song, Ji-Hye Lee, Hak-Man Kim
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: cooperative multi-microgrids, energy management system (EMS), energy trading, heat energy, optimal operation, sequential operation
We propose an optimal electric and heat energy management for a cooperative multi-microgrid community. The sequentially-coordinated operation for heat energy is proposed in order to distribute the computational burden as an extension of “Optimal Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially Coordinated Operations” and is following the sequentially-coordinated operations for electric energy in it. This sequentially-coordinated operation for heat energy is mathematically modeled and how to obtain the global heat energy optimization solution in the cooperative multi-microgrid community is presented. The global heat energy optimization is achieved for the cooperative community by adjusting the combined electric and heat energy production amounts of combined heat and power (CHP) generators and the heat energy production amount of heat only boilers (HOBs) which satisfy all heat loads, as well as optimize the external electric energy trading in order to minimize the unnecessary cost... [more]
A Novel Design of Radio Frequency Energy Relays on Power Transmission Lines
Jin Tong, Yigang He, Bing Li, Fangming Deng, Tao Wang
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: high-voltage power transmission line, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, wireless energy transmission
In this paper, we investigate the energy problem of monitoring sensors on high-voltage power transmission lines and propose a wireless charging scheme for a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) sensor tag to solve a commercial efficiency problem: the maintenance-caused power outage. Considering the environmental influences on power transmission lines, a self-powered wireless energy relay is designed to meet the energy requirement of the passive RFID sensor tag. The relay can obtain the electric field energy from the transmission lines and wirelessly power the RFID sensor tags around for longer operating distance. A prototype of the energy relay is built and tested on a 110 kv line. The measurement results show that the energy relay can provide stable energy even with the influences of wind, noise and power outage. To our knowledge, it is the first work to power the RFID sensor tags on power transmission lines.
Online Identification with Reliability Criterion and State of Charge Estimation Based on a Fuzzy Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Zhongwei Deng, Lin Yang, Yishan Cai, Hao Deng
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery management system, fuzzy adaptive extended Kalman filter, intrinsic model error, parameter reliability criterion, state of charge
In the field of state of charge (SOC) estimation, the Kalman filter has been widely used for many years, although its performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the battery model as well as the noise covariance. The Kalman gain determines the confidence coefficient of the battery model by adjusting the weight of open circuit voltage (OCV) correction, and has a strong correlation with the measurement noise covariance (R). In this paper, the online identification method is applied to acquire the real model parameters under different operation conditions. A criterion based on the OCV error is proposed to evaluate the reliability of online parameters. Besides, the equivalent circuit model produces an intrinsic model error which is dependent on the load current, and the property that a high battery current or a large current change induces a large model error can be observed. Based on the above prior knowledge, a fuzzy model is established to compensate the model error through updating... [more]
Integrated Combined Heat and Power System Dispatch Considering Electrical and Thermal Energy Storage
Rongxiang Yuan, Jun Ye, Jiazhi Lei, Timing Li
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: combined heat and power, dispatch, electrical energy storage, thermal energy storage
Wind power has achieved great development in Northern China, but abundant wind power is dissipated, rather than utilized, due to inflexible electricity production of combined heat and power (CHP) units. In this paper, an integrated CHP system consisting of CHP units, wind power plants, and condensing power plants is investigated to decouple the power and heat production on both the power supply side and heat supply side, by incorporating electrical energy storage (EES) and thermal energy storage (TES). Then the integrated CHP system dispatch (ICHPSD) model is formulated to reach the target of reducing wind power curtailment and primary energy consumption. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed ICHPSD model are verified by the six-bus system, and the simulation results show that EES has a better effect on wind power integration than TES. The annual net benefits by incorporating EES and TES increase with increasing wind penetration, but they gradually approach saturat... [more]
Variability Characteristics of European Wind and Solar Power Resources—A Review
Ingeborg Graabak, Magnus Korpås
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: solar power production, the future power production in Europe, variable renewable energy, wind power production
This paper reviews the most recent and relevant research into the variability characteristics of wind and solar power resources in Europe. The background for this study is that wind and solar resources will probably constitute major components of the future European power system. Such resources are variable, and EU plans to balance the variability with more grids and demand response. Thus, planning for the future power system requires an in-depth understanding of the variability. Resource variability is a multi-faceted concept best described using a range of distinct characteristics, and this review is structured on the basis of seven of these: Distribution Long-Term (hours to years), Distribution Short-Term (less than one hour), Step Changes, Autocorrelation, Spatial Correlation, Cross Correlation and Predictable Patterns. The review presents simulations and empirical results related to resource variability for each of these characteristics. Results to date reveal that the variability... [more]
Coordination Control Strategy for AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids in Stand-Alone Mode
Dwi Riana Aryani, Hwachang Song
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery energy storage system, droop control, hybrid AC/DC microgrid, interlink bidirectional AC/DC converter, power management
Interest in DC microgrids is rapidly increasing along with the improvement of DC power technology because of its advantages. To support the integration process of DC microgrids with the existing AC utility grids, the form of hybrid AC/DC microgrids is considered for higher power conversion efficiency, lower component cost and better power quality. In the system, AC and DC portions are connected through interlink bidirectional AC/DC converters (IC) with a proper control system and power management. In the stand-alone operation mode of AC/DC hybrid microgrids, the control of power injection through the IC is crucial in order to maintain the system security. This paper mainly deals with a coordination control strategy of IC and a battery energy storage system (BESS) converter under stand-alone operation. A coordinated control strategy for the IC, which considers the state of charge (SOC) level of BESS and the load shedding scheme as the last resort, is proposed to obtain better power shar... [more]
A Natural Analogy to the Diffusion of Energy-Efficient Technologies
José Antonio Moya
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: barriers, diffusion of innovations, energy-efficiency gap, energy-system models
A new mathematical approach to the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies is presented using the diffusion of natural processes as an analogy. This approach is applied to the diffusion of the electric arc furnace in Japan. The main advantage offered by the new approach is the incorporation of an average effect of barriers to, and support measures for, innovation. This approach also incorporates some of the parameters influencing the cost-effectiveness of the investment in the new technology as the main driver for adopting the innovation. The straightforward equivalence between natural phenomena and the diffusion of innovation requires the conceptual abstraction of setting a dimension (and defining) the medium in which the diffusion takes place. This new approach opens new research paths to analysing under what circumstances innovations can take-off, the effect of barriers in the diffusion of energy efficient technologies, or how the diffusion process is incorporated in energy-syste... [more]
Lifetime-Aware Cloud Data Centers: Models and Performance Evaluation
Luca Chiaraviglio, Antonio Cianfrani, Marco Listanti, William Liu, Marco Polverini
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: data-centers (DCs), energy and lifetime trade-off, failure models, server lifetime models
We present a model to evaluate the server lifetime in cloud data centers (DCs). In particular, when the server power level is decreased, the failure rate tends to be reduced as a consequence of the limited number of components powered on. However, the variation between the different power states triggers a failure rate increase. We therefore consider these two effects in a server lifetime model, subject to an energy-aware management policy. We then evaluate our model in a realistic case study. Our results show that the impact on the server lifetime is far from negligible. As a consequence, we argue that a lifetime-aware approach should be pursued to decide how and when to apply a power state change to a server.
Climate Resilient Low-Income Tropical Housing
Arman Hashemi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Africa, climate change, housing, low-income, refurbishment, resilience, thermal comfort, tropical, Uganda
Located in East Africa, Uganda is one of the most economically deprived countries that is likely to be dramatically affected by climate change. Over 50% of Ugandan families live in single-roomed overcrowded properties and over 60% of the country’s urban population live in slums. Moreover, the gradual shift towards relatively modern and low thermal resistance building materials, in addition to imminent thermal discomfort due to global warming, may considerably affect the health and wellbeing of low-income people, the majority of whom live in low quality homes with very little or no access to basic amenities. This paper evaluates the effects of various construction methods as well as refurbishment strategies on thermal comfort in low-income houses in Uganda. It is aimed at helping low-income populations adapt to climate changes by developing simple, effective and affordable refurbishment strategies that could easily be applied to existing buildings. Dynamic thermal simulations are conduc... [more]
Assessment of Retrofitting Measures for a Large Historic Research Facility Using a Building Energy Simulation Model
Young Tae Chae, Young M. Lee, David Longinott
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: energy conservation measures (ECMs), historic research facility, system retrofitting, whole building energy simulation
A calibrated building simulation model was developed to assess the energy performance of a large historic research building. The complexity of space functions and operational conditions with limited availability of energy meters makes it hard to understand the end-used energy consumption in detail and to identify appropriate retrofitting options for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An energy simulation model was developed to study the energy usage patterns not only at a building level, but also of the internal thermal zones, and system operations. The model was validated using site measurements of energy usage and a detailed audit of the internal load conditions, system operation, and space programs to minimize the discrepancy between the documented status and actual operational conditions. Based on the results of the calibrated model and end-used energy consumption, the study proposed potential energy conservation measures (ECMs) for the building envelop... [more]
Streamer Propagation and Breakdown in a Very Small Point-Insulating Plate Gap in Mineral Oil and Ester Liquids at Positive Lightning Impulse Voltage
Pawel Rozga
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: breakdown, lightning impulse, mineral oil, natural ester, streamer propagation, synthetic ester
This article presents the results of comparative studies on streamer propagation and breakdown in a point-insulating plate electrode system in mineral oil and two ester liquids. The studies were performed for a 10-mm gap and a positive standard lightning impulse. The work was focused on the comparison of light waveforms registered using the photomultiplier technique. The results indicated that both esters demonstrate a lower resistance against the appearance of fast energetic streamers than mineral oil. The reason for such a conclusion is that the number of lightning impulses supplied to the electrode system for which the above-mentioned fast streamers appeared at a given voltage level was always higher in the case of ester liquids than mineral oil. In terms of breakdown, the esters tested were assessed as more susceptible to the appearance of breakdown in the investigated electrode system. The number of breakdowns recorded in the case of esters was always greater than the correspondin... [more]
Interdependencies between Biofuel, Fuel and Food Prices: The Case of the Brazilian Ethanol Market
Deborah Bentivoglio, Adele Finco, Mirian Rumenos Piedade Bacchi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Ethanol, Gasoline, granger causality, prices, sugar, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)
Brazil is currently the world’s largest sugar producer and exporter, as well as the world’s largest producer and consumer of sugarcane ethanol as a transportation fuel. The growth of this market originates from a combination of government policies and technological change, in both the sugarcane ethanol processing sector and the manufacture of flex-fuel vehicles. In recent years however, ethanol production has been questioned due to its possible impact on food prices. The present paper aims to explore the impact of Brazilian ethanol prices on sugar and gasoline prices. The relationships between a times series of these prices are investigated using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), supported by Granger Causality tests. In addition, Impulse Response Functions (IRFs) and Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVD) are computed in order to investigate the dynamic interrelationships within these series. Our results suggest that ethanol prices are affected by both food and fuel prices... [more]
Scheduling of Electricity Storage for Peak Shaving with Minimal Device Wear
Thijs van der Klauw, Johann L. Hurink, Gerard J. M. Smit
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: device aging, electrical energy storage, mixed integer linear program (MILP), peak shaving, polynomial time optimal algorithm
In this work, we investigate scheduling problems for electrical energy storage systems and formulate an algorithm that finds an optimal solution with minimal charging cycles in the case of a single device. For the considered problems, the storage system is used to reduce the peaks of the production and consumption within (part of) the electricity distribution grid, while minimizing device wear. The presented mathematical model of the storage systems captures the general characteristic of electrical energy storage devices while omitting the details of the specific technology used to store the energy. In this way, the model can be applied to a wide range of settings. Within the model, the wear of the storage devices is modeled by either: (1) the total energy throughput; or (2) the number of switches between charging and discharging, the so-called charging cycles. For the first case, where the energy throughput determines the device wear, a linear programming formulation is given. For the... [more]
Energy Converter with Inside Two, Three, and Five Connected H₂/Air Swirling Combustor Chambers: Solar and Combustion Mode Investigations
Angelo Minotti
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, detailed chemistry, fluid-structure interaction, hydrogen-air combustion, meso-combustor, whirl flow
This work reports the performance of an energy converter characterized by an emitting parallelepiped element with inside two, three, or five swirling connected combustion chambers. In particular, the idea is to adopt the heat released by H₂/air combustion, occurring in the connected swirling chambers, to heat up the emitting surfaces of the thermally-conductive emitting parallelepiped brick. The final goal consists in obtaining the highest emitting surface temperature and the highest power delivered to the ambient environment, with the simultaneous fulfillment of four design constraints: dimension of the emitting surface fixed to 30 × 30 mm², solar mode thermal efficiency greater than 20%, emitting surface peak temperature T > 1000 K, and its relative ∆T < 100 K in the combustion mode operation. The connected swirling meso-combustion chambers, inside the converter, differ only in their diameters. Combustion simulations are carried out adopting 500 W of injected chemical power, stoichio... [more]
Market Equilibrium and Impact of Market Mechanism Parameters on the Electricity Price in Yunnan’s Electricity Market
Chuntian Cheng, Fu Chen, Gang Li, Qiyu Tu
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Cournot model, electricity price, market equilibrium, market mechanism parameter
In this paper, a two-dimensional Cournot model is proposed to study generation companies’ (GENCO’s) strategic quantity-setting behaviors in the newly established Yunnan’s electricity market. A hybrid pricing mechanism is introduced to Yunnan’s electricity market with the aim to stimulate electricity demand. Market equilibrium is obtained by iteratively solving each GENCO’s profit maximization problem and finding their optimal bidding outputs. As the market mechanism is a key element of the electricity market, impacts of different market mechanism parameters on electricity price and power generation in market equilibrium state should be fully assessed. Therefore, based on the proposed model, we precisely explore the impacts on market equilibrium of varying parameters such as the number of GENCOs, the quantity of ex-ante obligatory-use electricity contracts (EOECs) and the elasticity of demand. Numerical analysis results of Yunnan’s electricity market show that these parameters have nota... [more]
Optimal Scheduling of Energy Storage System for Self-Sustainable Base Station Operation Considering Battery Wear-Out Cost
Yohwan Choi, Hongseok Kim
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery wear-out cost, demand response (DR), dynamic programming (DP), energy storage system (ESS), optimal scheduling, peak shift, photovoltaic (PV), sustainable base station (BS)
A self-sustainable base station (BS) where renewable resources and energy storage system (ESS) are interoperably utilized as power sources is a promising approach to save energy and operational cost in communication networks. However, high battery price and low utilization of ESS intended for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) necessitates active utilization of ESS. This paper proposes a multi-functional framework of ESS using dynamic programming (DP) for realizing a sustainable BS. We develop an optimal charging and discharging scheduling algorithm considering a detailed battery wear-out model to minimize operational cost as well as to prolong battery lifetime. Our approach significantly reduces total cost compared to the conventional method that does not consider battery wear-out. Extensive experiments for several scenarios exhibit that total cost is reduced by up to 70.6% while battery wear-out is also reduced by 53.6%. The virtue of the proposed framework is its wide applicability... [more]
A Novel Protection Method for Single Line-to-Ground Faults in Ungrounded Low-Inertia Microgrids
Liuming Jing, Dae-Hee Son, Sang-Hee Kang, Soon-Ryul Nam
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: distributed energy resources, microgrid protection, single line-to-ground (SLG) fault, ungrounded low-inertia microgrid
This paper proposes a novel protection method for single line-to-ground (SLG) faults in ungrounded low-inertia microgrids. The proposed method includes microgrid interface protection and unit protection. The microgrid interface protection is based on the difference between the zero-sequence voltage angle and the zero-sequence current angle at the microgrid interconnection transformer for fast selection of the faulty feeder. The microgrid unit protection is based on a comparison of the three zero-sequence current phase directions at each junction point of load or distributed energy resources. Methods are also included to locate the minimum fault section. The fault section location technology operates according to the coordination of microgrid unit protection. The proposed method responds to SLG faults that may occur in both the grid and the microgrid. Simulations of an ungrounded low-inertia microgrid with a relay model were carried out using Power System Computer Aided Design (PSCAD)/E... [more]
Combining Unsteady Blade Pressure Measurements and a Free-Wake Vortex Model to Investigate the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Wind Turbine Aerodynamic Blade Loads in Yaw
Moutaz Elgammi, Tonio Sant
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: dynamic stall, free-wake vortex model, NREL Phase VI rotor, unsteady angle of attack, wind turbine aerodynamics, yawed rotor
Prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomenon on wind turbines is challenging and still subject to considerable uncertainty. Under yawed rotor conditions, the wind turbine blades are subjected to unsteady flow conditions as a result of the blade advancing and retreating effect and the development of a skewed vortical wake created downstream of the rotor plane. Blade surface pressure measurements conducted on the NREL Phase VI rotor in yawed conditions have shown that dynamic stall causes the wind turbine blades to experience significant cycle-to-cycle variations in aerodynamic loading. These effects were observed even though the rotor was subjected to a fixed speed and a uniform and steady wind flow. This phenomenon is not normally predicted by existing dynamic stall models integrated in wind turbine design codes. This paper couples blade pressure measurements from the NREL Phase VI rotor to a free-wake vortex model to derive the angle of attack time series at the different bl... [more]
Analysis and Solution for Operations of Overcurrent Relay in Wind Power System
Yeonho Ok, Jaewon Lee, Jaeho Choi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: coordination of protection relay, malfunction of protection relay, overcurrent relay, wind power system, wind speed
Wind power systems are being integrated increasingly into the power grid because of their large capacity and easy access to the transmission grid. The reliability of wind power plants is very important and the elimination of protective relay’s malfunctions is essential to the mitigation of power quality problems due to the frequent starts and stops of high capacity wind generators. In this study, the problem of frequent false operations of the protective relays are analyzed using real data as line voltages, line currents, and wind speed. A new re-coordination of the overcurrent relay (OCR) based on the wind speed is proposed to avoid frequent operations of relays and tested for a grid-connected wind farm. This study verifies that the false actions by the OCRs that are not accompanied by actual electrical faults in the power grid or wind power system can be solved by the appropriate re-coordination of the OCR.
New Scheme for Seamless Operation for Stand-Alone Power Systems
Hyun-Jun Kim, Yoon-Seok Lee, Byung-Moon Han, Young-Doo Yoon
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery energy storage system (BESS), current control, engine generator (EG), phase-locked loop (PLL), photo voltaic (PV) panels, seamless operation, voltage control
On remote islands photovoltaic (PV) panels with battery energy storage systems (BESSs) supply electric power to customers in parallel operation with engine generators (EGs) to reduce fuel consumption and environmental burden. A BESS operates in voltage control mode when it supplies power to loads alone, while it operates in current control mode when it supplies power to loads in parallel with the EG. This paper proposes a smooth mode change of the BESS from current control to voltage control by using initial value at the output of integral part in the voltage controller, and a smooth mode change from voltage control to current control by tracking the EG output voltage to the BESS output voltage using a phase-locked loop (PLL). The feasibility of the proposed scheme was verified through computer simulations and experiments with a scaled prototype.
Application of a Heat Flux Sensor in Wind Power Electronics
Elvira Baygildina, Liudmila Smirnova, Kirill Murashko, Raimo Juntunen, Andrey Mityakov, Mikko Kuisma, Olli Pyrhönen, Pasi Peltoniemi, Katja Hynynen, Vladimir Mityakov, Sergey Sapozhnikov
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: heat flux sensor, measurement, power electronics, reliability, wind turbine
This paper proposes and investigates the application of the gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS) for measuring the local heat flux in power electronics. Thanks to its thinness, the sensor can be placed between the semiconductor module and the heat sink. The GHFS has high sensitivity and yields direct measurements without an interruption to the normal power device operation, which makes it attractive for power electronics applications. The development of systems for monitoring thermal loading and methods for online detection of degradation and failure of power electronic devices is a topical and crucial task. However, online condition monitoring (CM) methods, which include heat flux sensors, have received little research attention so far. In the current research, an insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module-based test setup with the GHFS implemented on the base plate of one of the IGBTs is introduced. The heat flux experiments and the IGBT power losses obtained by simulations show sim... [more]
A Stackelberg Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentive Effects under Perceived Risk for China’s Straw-Based Power Plant Supply Chain
Lingling Wang, Tsunemi Watanabe
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: biomass power plant, perceived risk, stackelberg game theory, Supply Chain
The rapid expansion of the biomass power generation industry has resulted in the conversion of substantial agricultural waste (crop straw) into energy feedstock, thereby increasing the income of farmers and promoting the development of rural areas. However, the promising industry faces financial deficits because of difficulties in collecting straw from farmers. To determine strategies for overcoming the biomass supply problem, we apply Stackelberg game theory in modeling the Chinese biomass supply chain and design incentive scenarios under stakeholder risk perception. We illustrate the proposed methodology through an empirical case study on China and demonstrate the effects of incentives on farmers and middlemen. Results show that with incentives, straw quantity and stakeholder profit are expected to increase. Incentives exert a particularly remarkable effect on farmers, with such inducements producing the highest social welfare. Moreover, perceived risk dramatically affects stakeholde... [more]
Study of the Injection Control Strategies of a Compression Ignition Free Piston Engine Linear Generator in a One-Stroke Starting Process
Huihua Feng, Yuyao Guo, Yu Song, Chendong Guo, Zhengxing Zuo
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: free piston engine, injection control strategies, linear motor
For a compression ignition (CI) free piston engine linear generator (FPLG), injection timing is one of the most important parameters that affect its performance, especially for the one-stroke starting operation mode. In this paper, two injection control strategies are proposed using piston position and velocity signals. It was found experimentally that the injection timing’s influence on the compression ratio, the peak in-cylinder gas pressure and the indicated work (IW) is different from that of traditional reciprocating CI engines. The maximum IW of the ignition starting cylinder, say left cylinder (LC) and the right cylinder (RC) are 132.7 J and 138.1 J, respectively. The thermal-dynamic model for simulating the working processes of the FPLG are built and verified by experimental results. The numerical simulation results show that the running instability and imbalance between LC and RC are the obvious characters when adopting the injection strategy of the velocity feedback. These co... [more]
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