Records Added in September 2018
Records added in September 2018
Change year: 2018 | 2019 | 2020
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Showing records 1 to 25 of 254. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Distributing Characteristics within Fuel Cell Stacks with features that Fuel/Air Manifolds Penetrated through Plane Zone and Open Outlet Manifold
Dai Fen Chen
September 19, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: 3D large scale simulating, Flow and temperature distribution characteristics, Solid oxide fuel cell stack, Structure features
Although many numerical models based on different fuel cell stack designs have been developed in past decades, most of the achieved optimized results are greatly dependent on the specific designs, cell numbers and geometric values. Achieving the general relationship between the structure features and distribution trends of key physics items, that is independent on the specific design would be high instructive. To achieve high volumetric/gravimetric power density and simple manufacturing process, both fuel and air manifolds of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack are always designed to place within cell plane zone and penetrated through it; and open outlet manifold is also adopted. In this study, the three dimension large scale multi-physics numerical model for a typical SOFC stack with the above two design features is well completed by carefully coupling momentum, mass, energy and quasi electrochemical reaction equations. Then, the general relations between these structure features and... [more]
A Review of the Design and Control of Free-Piston Linear Generator
Xuezhen Wang, Feixue Chen, Renfeng Zhu, Guilin Yang, Chi Zhang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: free-piston, internal combustion engine, linear electric machine, piston motion control
The Free-piston linear generator (FPLG) is a novel energy converter which can generate electrical energy and is regarded as a potential technology for solving the restriction of the short driving range of electric vehicles. Getting rid of the crank and flywheel mechanism, FPLG obtains some advantages of a variable compression ratio, compact size, and highly-efficient power generation. Linear electric machine (LEM) design and piston motion control are two key technologies of FPLG. However, they are currently the main obstacles to the favorable performance of FPLG. LEM being used to drive the piston motion or generate electric energy is an integrated design including a motor/generator. Various types of LEMs are investigated, and suitable application scenarios based on advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The FPLG’s controller is used to ensure stable operation and highly-efficient output. However, cycle-to-cycle variations of the combustion process and motor/generator switching ma... [more]
Investment Determinants in Self-Consumption Facilities: Characterization and Qualitative Analysis in Spain
José Ángel Gimeno, Eva Llera, Sabina Scarpellini
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: drivers and barriers, investments, prosumers, remuneration policies, self-consumption, solar energy
Self-consumption energy facilities are presented as viable and sustainable solutions in the energy transition scenario in which many countries are immersed. However, they rely on dispersed and private investments in the territory. Given the uneven growth in the number of self-consumption facilities in Europe, the main objective of this study is to identify and measure the investment determinants in self-consumption facilities. To this end, the main influential incentives and barriers are identified through the aggregate analysis of the regulatory framework for self-consumption in several European countries, and the empirical characterization of Spanish facilities as a multiple case study, to define the common features of the investments made. The technical, economic, and financial characterization of real self-consumption facilities in climatic zones of southern Europe is a significant contribution of the present work. There are few samples of this type in the studies published to date... [more]
Research on a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Energy Management Strategy Considering Drivability
Ye Yang, Youtong Zhang, Jingyi Tian, Si Zhang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: drivability, dynamic programming, fuel economy, linear weight particle swarm optimization, plug-in hybrid electric bus
Plug-in hybrid electric buses (PHEBs) is some of the most promising products to address air pollution and the energy crisis. Considering the switching between different working modes often bring about sudden changes of the torque and the speed of different power sources, which may lead to the instability of the power output and affect the driving performance and ride comfort, it is of great significance to develop a real-time optimal energy management strategy for PHEBs to achieve the optimization of fuel economy and drivability. In this study, the proposed strategy includes an offline part and an online part. In the offline part, firstly, the energy conversion coefficient s(t) is optimized by linear weight particle swarm optimization algorithm (LinWPSO), then, the optimization results of s(t) are converted into a 2-dimensional look-up table. Secondly, combined with three typical driving cycle conditions, the gear-shifting correction and mode switching boundary parameters that affect t... [more]
The Effects of Dynamic Pricing of Electric Power on Consumer Behavior: A Propensity Score Analysis for Empirical Study on Nushima Island, Japan
Thanh Tam Ho, Sarana Shinkuma, Koji Shimada
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: demand response, dynamic pricing, local linear matching, propensity score analysis
This study aimed to investigate the change of consumer behavior in electric power consumption after the application of dynamic pricing via real-time feedback. Afield experiment of dynamic pricing was carried out on Nushima Island, which is located in Hyogo Prefecture in central Japan. The panel data of hourly electric power consumption among 50 households (including 22 control households and 28 treated households) were collected from a baseline survey (14 days before the dynamic pricing experiment was conducted) and during the 14-day experimental period. Propensity score analysis with local linear matching was employed to analyze the average treatment effects of dynamic pricing on consumer behavior. The results report that dynamic pricing plays a crucial role in reducing consumers’ electric power consumption—by 9.6% compared to the pre-experimental period.
Online Speed Estimation Using Artificial Neural Network for Speed Sensorless Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor based on Constant V/F Control Technique
Narongrit Pimkumwong, Ming-Shyan Wang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neural network, direct torque control, induction motor drives, speed estimation
This paper presents the speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque control of a three-phase induction motor based on constant voltage per frequency (V/F) control technique, using artificial neural network (ANN). The estimated stator current equation is derived and rearranged consistent with the control algorithm and ANN structure. For the speed estimation, a weight in ANN, which relates to the speed, is adjusted by using Widrow⁻Hoff learning rule to minimize the sum of squared errors between the measured stator current and the estimated stator current from ANN output. The consequence of using this method leads to the ability of online speed estimation and simple ANN structure. The simulation and experimental results in high- and low-speed regions have confirmed the validity of the proposed speed estimation method.
An Overview of Energy Scenarios, Storage Systems and the Infrastructure for Vehicle-to-Grid Technology
Tohid Harighi, Ramazan Bayindir, Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban, Lucian Mihet-Popa, Eklas Hossain
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Batteries, electric vehicles, grid-to-vehicle, harmonic distortion, IEEE Bus standards, vehicle-to-grid
The increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most important problems in the world. Decreasing GHG emissions will be a big challenge in the future. The transportation sector uses a significant part of petroleum production in the world, and this leads to an increase in the emission of GHG. The result of this issue is that the population of the world befouls the environment by the transportation system automatically. Electric Vehicles (EV) have the potential to solve a big part of GHG emission and energy efficiency issues such as the stability and reliability of energy. Therefore, the EV and grid relation is limited to the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) or Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) function. Consequently, the grid has temporary energy storage in EVs’ batteries and electricity in exchange for fossil energy in vehicles. The energy actors and their research teams have determined some targets for 2050; hence, they hope to decrease the world temperature by 6 °C, or at least by 2 °C... [more]
Combustion Characteristics and NOx Emission through a Swirling Burner with Adjustable Flaring Angle
Yafei Zhang, Rui Luo, Yihua Dou, Qulan Zhou
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: combustion adjustment, flaring angle, fuel rich/lean combustion, low load, swirling burner
A swirling burner with a variable inner secondary air (ISA) flaring angle β is proposed and a laboratory scale opposed-firing furnace is built. Temperature distribution and NOx emission are designedly measured. The combustion characteristics affected by variable β are experimentally evaluated from ignition and burnout data. Meanwhile, NOx reduction by the variable β is analyzed through emissions measurements. Different inner/outer primary coal-air concentration ratios γ, thermal loads and coal types are considered in this study. Results indicate that β variation provides a new approach to promote ignition and burnout, as well as NOx emission reduction under conditions of fuel rich/lean combustion and load variation. The recommended β of a swirling burner under different conditions is not always constant. The optimal βopt of the swirling burner under all conditions for different burning performance are summarized in the form of curves, which could provide reference for exquisite combust... [more]
Comparison of the Stator Step Skewed Structures for Cogging Force Reduction of Linear Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines
Wenjuan Hao, Yu Wang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: cogging force, flux-switching permanent magnet machine, linear machine, step skewed stator
Linear flux switching permanent magnetic (LFSPM) machines, with the armature windings and magnets both on the mover in addition to a robust stator, are a good choice for long stoke applications, however, a large cogging force is also inevitable due to the double salient structure, and will worsen the system performance. Skewing methods are always employed for the rotary machines to reduce the cogging torque, and the rotor step-skewed method is a low-cost approximation of regular skewing. The step skewed method can also be applied to the linear machines, namely, the stator step skewed. In this paper, three stator step skewed structures, which are a three-step skewed stator, a two-step skewed stator and an improved two-step skewed stator, are employed for the cogging force reduction of two types of LFSPM machines. The three structures are analyzed and compared with emphasize on the influence of the skewed displacement on the cogging force and the average thrust force. Based on finite ele... [more]
Low Cost Position Controller for Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve System
Habib Bhuiyan, Jung-Hyo Lee
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: automotive application, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve system, position control, static friction
This paper proposes a position control method for a low-cost exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve system for automotive applications. Generally, position control systems used in automotive applications have many restrictions, such as cost and space. The mechanical structure of the actuator causes high friction and large differences between static friction and coulomb friction. When this large friction difference occurs, the position control vibrates when the controller uses a conventional linear controller such as the P or PI controller. In this paper, we introduce an inexpensive position control method that can be applied under the high-difference-friction mechanical systems. The proposed method is verified through the use of experiments by comparing it with the results obtained when using a conventional control system.
Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Zhangzhou Basin Geothermal Zone, Southeastern China
Chaofeng Wu, Xiangyun Hu, Guiling Wang, Yufei Xi, Wenjing Lin, Shuang Liu, Bo Yang, Jianchao Cai
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: geothermal anomaly, high-conductive zone, magnetotelluric, Zhangzhou Basin
The geothermal zone of southeast China, which is one of the country’s known geothermal zones, contains significant natural geothermal resources. To understand the formation of geothermal resources, a magnetotelluric (MT) investigation with a site spacing of 1⁻2 km was carried out around the Zhangzhou Basin. The recorded MT data were processed by robust time series and remote reference processing techniques. The data analysis results revealed that two-dimensional (2-D) modeling can be used to approximately determine the electrical structure. The joint inversions of TE and TM modes have been performed after distortion decomposition. In the inversion models, a low resistivity cap of 200⁻800 m thickness was observed, which represented the blanketing sediments composed of Quaternary and volcanic rocks of the late Jurassic period. The presence of high resistivity above a depth of 20 km indicates the granites are widely developed in the upper and middle crust. MT measurements have revealed so... [more]
Maintenance Factor Identification in Outdoor Lighting Installations Using Simulation and Optimization Techniques
Ana Ogando-Martínez, Javier López-Gómez, Lara Febrero-Garrido
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: artificial lighting, calibration, GenOpt, radiance, Simulation, street light points
This document addresses the development of a novel methodology to identify the actual maintenance factor of the luminaires of an outdoor lighting installation in order to assess their lighting performance. The method is based on the combined use of Radiance, a free and open-source tool, for the modeling and simulation of lighting scenes, and GenOpt, a generic optimization program, for the calibration of the model. The application of this methodology allows the quantification of the deterioration of the road lighting system and the identification of luminaires that show irregularities in their operation. Values lower than 9% for the error confirm that this research can contribute to the management of street lighting by assessing real road conditions.
Autoignition Behavior of an Ethanol-Methylcellulose Gel Droplet in a Hot Environment
Donggi Lee, Jonghan Won, Seung Wook Baek, Hyemin Kim
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: autoignition, combustion, droplet, Ethanol, gel propellant
Autoignition of an ethanol-based gel droplet was experimentally investigated by adding 10 wt % of methylcellulose as gellant to liquid ethanol. Experimental studies of the ignition behavior of the gel droplet were found to be quite rare. The initial droplet diameter was 1.17 ± 0.23 mm. The gel droplet was suspended on a K-type thermocouple and its evaporation, ignition and combustion characteristics were evaluated and compared with pure ethanol at an ambient temperature of 600, 700, and 800 °C under atmospheric pressure conditions. The gel droplet exhibited swelling and vapor jetting phenomena. Before ignition, a linear decrease in droplet diameter followed by a sudden increase was repeatedly observed, which was caused by evaporation and swelling processes, respectively. Major droplet swelling was detected just before the onset of ignition at all temperatures. But no further swelling was detected after ignition. For the gel droplet, the ignition delay accounted for 93% of the droplet l... [more]
Optimal Energy Management within a Microgrid: A Comparative Study
Luis Orlando Polanco Vasquez, Cristian Andrés Carreño Meneses, Alejandro Pizano Martínez, Juana López Redondo, Manuel Pérez García, José Domingo Álvarez Hervás
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distributed power system, energy management, microgrid, optimal power flow
In this work, we focus on optimal energy management within the context of the tertiary control of a microgrid operating in grid-connected mode. Specifically, the optimal energy management problem is solved in a unified way by using the optimal power flow (OPF) and day-ahead concepts. The elements considered in the microgrid are a photovoltaic panel, a wind turbine, electric vehicles, a storage system, and a point of common coupling with the main grid. The aim of this paper consists of optimizing the economic energy dispatch within the microgrid considering known predictions of electricity demand, solar radiation, and wind speed for a given period of time. The OPF is solved using three different algorithms provided by the optimization toolbox of MATLAB® (R2015a, MathWorks®, Natick, MA, USA): the interior point method (IP), a hybrid genetic algorithm with interior point (GA-IP), and a hybrid direct search with interior point (patternsearch-IP). The efficiency and effectiveness of the alg... [more]
Lighting Control Including Daylight and Energy Efficiency Improvements Analysis
Aniela Kaminska, Andrzej Ożadowicz
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: building automation systems, building energy efficiency, daytime lighting, EN 15232 standard, lighting control systems
Energy used for lighting is one of the major components of total energy consumption in buildings. Nowadays, buildings have a great potential to reduce their energy consumption, but to achieve this purpose additional efforts are indispensable. In this study, the need for energy savings evaluation before the implementation of lighting control algorithms for a specified building is highlighted. Therefore, experimental tests have been carried out in a university building with laboratories and other rooms, equipped with KNX building automation system. A dimmable control strategy has been investigated, dependent on daylight illuminance. Moreover, a relationship between external and internal daylight illuminance levels has been evaluated as well. Based on the experimental results, the authors proposed a method for the rough estimation of electrical energy savings. Since, according to the EN 15232 standard, Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) play an important role in buildings’ ene... [more]
Internet of Energy Approach for Sustainable Use of Electric Vehicles as Energy Storage of Prosumer Buildings
Evgeny Nefedov, Seppo Sierla, Valeriy Vyatkin
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distributed energy storage, electric vehicles, internet of energy, photovoltaic generation, prosumer, Simulation, smartgrid, vehicle-to-building, vehicle-to-grid
Vehicle-to-building (V2B) technology permits bypassing the power grid in order to supply power to a building from electric vehicle (EV) batteries in the parking lot. This paper investigates the hypothesis stating that the increasing number of EVs on our roads can be also beneficial for making buildings sustainably greener on account of using V2B technology in conjunction with local photovoltaic (PV) generation. It is assumed that there is no local battery storage other than EVs and that the EV batteries are fully available for driving, so that the EVs batteries must be at the intended state of charge at the departure time announced by the EV driver. Our goal is to exploit the potential of the EV batteries capacity as much as possible in order to permit a large area of solar panels, so that even on sunny days all PV power can be used to supply the building needs or the EV charging at the parking lot. A system architecture and collaboration protocols that account for uncertainties in EV... [more]
On Energy Management Control of a PV-Diesel-ESS Based Microgrid in a Stand-Alone Context
Ahmed Belila, Mohamed Benbouzid, El-Madjid Berkouk, Yassine Amirat
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: diesel generator, energy management control, energy storage system, hybrid system, photovoltaic generator, power converters
This paper deals with the energy management control of a PV-Diesel-ESS-based microgrid in a stand-alone context. In terms of control, an Isolated Mode Control (IMC) strategy based on a resonant regulator is proposed. In Parallel Mode Control (PMC) conditions, the diesel generator (DG) is controlled to operate at its nominal power. In this context, a supervisory algorithm optimizing the power flow between the microgrid’s various components ensures switching between the two modes for different possible scenarios. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies, the energy management control (EMC) is tested first using a standard state of charge (SOC) profile emulating the microgrid different states. Then real data are used to simulate the load and solar radiations. An experimental validation on a reduced scale test bench is carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed energy management control strategies.
Gated Recurrent Unit Network-Based Short-Term Photovoltaic Forecasting
Yusen Wang, Wenlong Liao, Yuqing Chang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: GRU network, K-means, Pearson coefficient, photovoltaic power forecasting
Photovoltaic power has great volatility and intermittency due to environmental factors. Forecasting photovoltaic power is of great significance to ensure the safe and economical operation of distribution network. This paper proposes a novel approach to forecast short-term photovoltaic power based on a gated recurrent unit (GRU) network. Firstly, the Pearson coefficient is used to extract the main features that affect photovoltaic power output at the next moment, and qualitatively analyze the relationship between the historical photovoltaic power and the future photovoltaic power output. Secondly, the K-means method is utilized to divide training sets into several groups based on the similarities of each feature, and then GRU network training is applied to each group. The output of each GRU network is averaged to obtain the photovoltaic power output at the next moment. The case study shows that the proposed approach can effectively consider the influence of features and historical photo... [more]
The Impact of Pulse Charging Parameters on the Life Cycle of Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries
J. M. Amanor-Boadu, A. Guiseppi-Elie, E. Sánchez-Sinencio
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery impedance, constant current constant voltage, design of experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Li-ion polymer battery, life cycle, pulse charging, Taguchi orthogonal arrays
The pulse charging algorithm is seen as a promising battery charging technique to satisfy the needs of electronic device consumers to have fast charging and increased battery charge and energy efficiencies. However, to get the benefits of pulse charging, the pulse charge current parameters have to be chosen carefully to ensure optimal battery performance and also extend the life cycle of the battery. The impact of pulse charge current factors on the life cycle and battery characteristics are seldom investigated. This paper seeks to evaluate the impact of pulse charge current factors, such as frequency and duty cycle, on the life cycle and impedance parameters of lithium-ion polymer batteries (LiPo) while using a design of experiments approach, Taguchi orthogonal arrays. The results are compared with the benchmark constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) charging algorithm and it is observed that by using a pulse charger at optimal parameters, the cycle life of a LiPo battery can be in... [more]
A Power and Data Decoupled Transmission Method for Wireless Power Transfer Systems via a Shared Inductive Link
Xiaofei Li, Haichao Wang, Xin Dai
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: data transmission, hysteresis control, signal to noise ratio (SNR), wireless power transfer
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is gaining global popularity. However, in some applications, data transmission is also required to monitor the load states. This paper presents an alternative wireless power and data transmission method via the shared inductive link. With the method, the system presents three characteristics: (1) controllability and stability of the output voltage; (2) miniaturization in volume of the system; (3) decoupled transmission of power and data. The output voltage control is realized by a non-inductive hysteresis control method. In particular, data is transferred when the power transmission is blocked (i.e., the hysteresis switch is off). The interference between power and data transmission is very small. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) performance which is relevant to the interference from power transfer to data transfer and data transfer capacity, is studied and optimized. Both simulation and experimental results have verified the proposed method.
Real-World Fuel Consumption, Fuel Cost and Exhaust Emissions of Different Bus Powertrain Technologies
Samuel Rodman Oprešnik, Tine Seljak, Rok Vihar, Marko Gerbec, Tomaž Katrašnik
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: bus powertrain technologies, instantaneous gaseous and PM10 mass emissions, real-world driving cycles
Air quality in urban areas is strongly influenced by exhaust emitted by the public transport fleet. The aim of this study was to analyze benefits in the fuel consumption, fuel costs and exhaust emissions when replacing baseline diesel fueled EURO III city buses by the compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled EURO V buses and by hydraulic series hybrid diesel-fueled EURO V buses. Real-world measurements were performed on the regular bus route to access realistic energy consumption and exhaust emissions. Instantaneous gaseous emission (CO₂, CO, NOx and THC) were measured together with the instantaneous PM10 mass emission. Innovativeness of the presented approach thus arises from the systematic comparison of different powertrain technologies under real-world drive cycles and measuring time traces of not only gaseous but also of PM10 mass emissions. Furthermore, lumped cycle averaged emissions are interpreted and explained by typical powertrain performance parameters and exhaust emission time t... [more]
Power Transfer Efficiency Analysis for Omnidirectional Wireless Power Transfer System Using Three-Phase-Shifted Drive
Zhaohong Ye, Yue Sun, Xiufang Liu, Peiyue Wang, Chunsen Tang, Hailin Tian
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: mutual inductance coupling, omnidirectional wireless power, power transfer efficiency, three-phase-shifted drive, wireless power transfer (WPT)
In order to implement the omnidirectional wireless power transfer (WPT), a novel three-phase-shifted drive omnidirectional WPT system is proposed. This system is comprised of three independent phase-adjusted excitation sources, three orthogonal transmitting coils, and one planar receiving coil. Based on the mutual coupling theory, the power transfer efficiency is derived and the corresponding control mechanism for maximizing this efficiency is presented. This control mechanism only depends on the currents’ root-mean-square (RMS) values of the three transmitting coils and simple calculations after each location and/or posture change of the receiving coil, which provides the real-time possibility to design an omnidirectional WPT system comparing with the other omnidirectional systems. In aid of computer emulation technique, the efficiency characteristic versus the omnidirectional location and posture of the receiving coil is analyzed, and the analytical results verify the validity of the... [more]
Migration and Transformation of Vanadium and Nickel in High Sulfur Petroleum Coke during Gasification Processes
Wei Li, Ben Wang, Jun Nie, Wu Yang, Linlin Xu, Lushi Sun
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: gasification, high sulfur petcoke, migration, nickel, sequential extraction, vanadium
The volatilization characteristics and occurrence forms of V and Ni in petroleum coke (petcoke) were investigated during steam (H₂O) and carbon dioxide (CO₂) gasification on a fixed bed reactor at 800⁻1100 °C. The Tessier sequential chemical extraction procedure was employed to determine the different forms of V and Ni. The results showed their volatilities were not dependent on the gasification atmosphere, but rather relied mainly on the reaction temperature. The CO₂ atmosphere accelerated the conversion of organic-bound nickel to residual form at low temperature and promoted Fe-Mn oxides formation at high temperature. However, the H₂O atmosphere was conducive to form vanadium bound to Fe-Mn oxides and promoted the decomposition of residual forms. In addition, the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations showed the volatilization of Ni mainly released Ni₃S₂ between 800⁻1100 °C. The H₂O atmosphere was favorable to generate the more stable NixSy compound, thereby suppressing the volatiliz... [more]
Experimental Study on the Performance of Controllers for the Hydrogen Gas Production Demanded by an Internal Combustion Engine
Marisol Cervantes-Bobadilla, Ricardo Fabricio Escobar-Jiménez, José Francisco Gómez-Aguilar, Jarniel García-Morales, Víctor Hugo Olivares-Peregrino
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: digital PID, hydrogen production control, Model Predictive Control
This work presents the design and application of two control techniques—a model predictive control (MPC) and a proportional integral derivative control (PID), both in combination with a multilayer perceptron neural network—to produce hydrogen gas on-demand, in order to use it as an additive in a spark ignition internal combustion engine. For the design of the controllers, a control-oriented model, identified with the Hammerstein technique, was used. For the implementation of both controllers, only 1% of the overall air entering through the throttle valve reacted with hydrogen gas, allowing maintenance of the hydrogen⁻air stoichiometric ratio at 34.3 and the air⁻gasoline ratio at 14.6. Experimental results showed that the average settling time of the MPC controller was 1 s faster than the settling time of the PID controller. Additionally, MPC presented better reference tracking, error rates and standard deviation of 1.03 × 10 − 7 and 1.06 × 10 − 14 , and had a gre... [more]
Analysis and Design of a Compound-Structure Permanent-Magnet Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Qiwei Xu, Jing Sun, Dewen Tian, Wenjuan Wang, Jianshu Huang, Shumei Cui
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: compound-structure permanent-magnet motor, hybrid electric vehicles, parameters analysis and design, state equation, torque property, working mode
On the basis of the excellent driving force demand of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), this paper studies the torque property of the compound-structure permanent-magnet motor (CSPM motor) used for HEVs, which is influenced by magnetic field oversaturation and variable nonlinear parameters. Firstly, the system configuration of HEVs based on CSPM motor and its working mode are introduced. Next, the state equation of CSPM motor in three-phase stationary coordinate system is proposed in order to investigate its torque performance; then, the factors affecting the output torque are gained. Finite element method (FEM)-based electromagnetic parameters analysis and design is carried out, to raise the output torque and reduce the torque ripple of CSPM motor. Besides, optimized design parameters are used to establish the FEM model, and the simulation results of electromagnetic performances for the CSPM motor before and after optimization are given to verify the rationality of optimization.
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