Records Added in June 2020
Records added in June 2020
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Showing records 1 to 25 of 231. [First] Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Last
Development of a Variable Water Flow Rate Control Method for the Circulation Pump in a Geothermal Heat Pump System
Ji-Hyun Shin, Young-Hum Cho
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: circulation pump, COP (Coefficient of Performance), geothermal heat pump system, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, variable water flow rate control
This study assessed a variable flow rate control method for a circulation pump based on the geothermal water temperature difference in a geothermal heat pump system. As interest in energy conservation and efficient use is increasing around the world, the development and use of renewable energy is increasing and various related studies are currently underway. Among the renewable energy systems, the interest in geothermal energy system is high because of its efficient year-round operation. Geothermal heat pump system installations have increased in number, but the systems operate inefficiently. Generally in Korea, geothermal heat pump system operates under partial load conditions, but the circulation pump operates at constant speed and supplies a constant flow rate. Therefore, this study examined the operation of the current problems of a geothermal heat pump system. A variable flow rate control method of the circulation pump is proposed to improve the efficiency of the geothermal heat p... [more]
Single Inductor-Multiple Output DPWM DC-DC Boost Converter with a High Efficiency and Small Area
Young Jun Park, Zaffar Hayat Nawaz Khan, Seong Jin Oh, Byeong Gi Jang, Nabeel Ahmad, Danial Khan, Hamed Abbasizadeh, Syed Adil Ali Shah, Young Gun Pu, Keum Cheol Hwang, Youngoo Yang, Minjae Lee, Kang Yoon Lee
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: DC-DC converter, digital pulse width modulation, interlaced hysteresis delay cells (IHDCs)
In this paper, a small-area and high-efficiency single-inductor multiple output (SIMO) boost converter with digital pulse-width modulation (DPWM) is proposed. The DPWM comprises a delay line using interlaced hysteresis delay cells (IHDCs) that occupy a small area while consuming a low power amount. These proposed IHDCs are applied to replace the conventional delay cells of the prior works for both the power and area reductions. Regarding the DC-DC converter, this technique comprises fewer digital blocks in the feedback path compared with the conventional DC-DC converter, and the DPWM architecture uses IHDCs. The purpose of the digital limiter block is to concede some helpful code for the DPWM. The IHDC topology used for delay in DPWM is of the simplest architecture. The high-side power switch gate drivers need individual phases which are generated by phase control. The Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)-fabrication process is 55 nm, with a standard supply voltage of 1.8 V a... [more]
Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration in Field Programmable Gate Arrays: An Experimental Case Study
Vincenzo Conti, Leonardo Rundo, Giuseppe Dario Billeci, Carmelo Militello, Salvatore Vitabile
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: digital signal processing, dynamic partial reconfiguration, Energy Efficiency, Field Programmable Gate Array, video filtering
Both computational performances and energy efficiency are required for the development of any mobile or embedded information processing system. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the latest evolution of these systems, paving the way for advancements in ubiquitous computing. In a context in which a large amount of data is often analyzed and processed, it is mandatory to adapt node logic and processing capabilities with respect to the available energy resources. This paper investigates under which conditions a partially reconfigurable hardware accelerator can provide energy saving in complex processing tasks. The paper also presents a useful analysis of how the dynamic partial reconfiguration technique can be used to enable energy efficiency in a generic IoT node that exploits a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device. Furthermore, this work introduces a hardware infrastructure and new energy metrics tailored for the energy efficiency evaluation of the dynamic partial reconfiguration pr... [more]
Multi-Criteria Analysis of Electricity Generation Scenarios for Sustainable Energy Planning in Pakistan
Nayyar Hussain Mirjat, Mohammad Aslam Uqaili, Khanji Harijan, Mohd Wazir Mustafa, Md. Mizanur Rahman, M. Waris Ali Khan
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: AHP, electricity crises, Expert Choice, Pakistan, sustainable energy planning
The now over a decade-long electricity crisis in Pakistan has adversely affected the socio-economic development of the country. This situation is mainly due to a lack of sustainable energy planning and policy formulation. In this context, energy models can be of great help but only a handful of such efforts have been undertaken in Pakistan. Two key shortcomings pertaining to energy models lead to their low utilization in developing countries. First, the models do not effectively make decisions, but rather provide a set of alternatives based on modeling parameters; and secondly, the complexity of these models is often poorly understood by the decision makers. As such, in this study, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) has been used for the sustainability assessment of energy modeling results for long-term electricity planning. The four scenario alternatives developed in the energy modeling effort, Reference (REF), Renewable Energy... [more]
Novel Concept of an Installation for Sustainable Thermal Utilization of Sewage Sludge
Wilhelm Jan Tic, Joanna Guziałowska-Tic, Halina Pawlak-Kruczek, Eugeniusz Woźnikowski, Adam Zadorożny, Łukasz Niedźwiecki, Mateusz Wnukowski, Krystian Krochmalny, Michał Czerep, Michał Ostrycharczyk, Marcin Baranowski, Jacek Zgóra, Mateusz Kowal
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: drying, gasification, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, sewage sludge, torrefaction
This study proposes an innovative installation concept for the sustainable utilization of sewage sludge. The aim of the study is to prove that existing devices and technologies allow construction of such an installation by integration of a dryer, torrefaction reactor and gasifier with engine, thus maximizing recovery of the waste heat by the installation. This study also presents the results of drying tests, performed at a commercial scale paddle dryer as well as detailed analysis of the torrefaction process of dried sewage sludge. Both tests aim to identify potential problems that could occur during the operation. The scarce literature studies published so far on the torrefaction of sewage sludge presents results from batch reactors, thus giving very limited data of the composition of the torgas. This study aims to cover that gap by presenting results from the torrefaction of sewage sludge in a continuously working, laboratory scale, isothermal rotary reactor. The study confirmed the... [more]
A Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Carbon Dioxide Enclosures on Mars
Yue Sun, Guiping Lin, Xueqin Bu, Lizhan Bai, Chunhua Xiao, Dongsheng Wen
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: carbon dioxide (CO2) enclosure, correlation, field synergy principle, Mars, natural convection
In order to support the future thermal control and energy conservation design for the Mars rover, numerical studies on natural convection in CO₂ enclosures on Mars’ surface were conducted for both horizontal and vertical enclosures. The parameters are as follows: the atmospheric pressure was 1000 Pa, the gravitational acceleration was 3.62 m/s², and the Prandtl number was 0.77. The heat flux, temperature, and velocity fields of the CO₂ enclosures were obtained with the aspect ratio ranging from 5.56 to 200 and the Grashof number ranging from 430 to 2.6 × 10⁴. It was found that natural convection formed more easily in the horizontal enclosures than that in the vertical enclosures when the enclosures had same thickness. With the increasing thickness of the enclosures, Rayleigh⁻Bénard convections formed in the horizontal enclosures, while only single-cell convections formed in the vertical enclosures. The heat flux through the horizontal enclosures was greater than that through the vertic... [more]
An Algorithm for Online Inertia Identification and Load Torque Observation via Adaptive Kalman Observer-Recursive Least Squares
Ming Yang, Zirui Liu, Jiang Long, Wanying Qu, Dianguo Xu
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: full-order observer, motor control, parameter identification
In this paper, an on-line parameter identification algorithm to iteratively compute the numerical values of inertia and load torque is proposed. Since inertia and load torque are strongly coupled variables due to the degenerate-rank problem, it is hard to estimate relatively accurate values for them in the cases such as when load torque variation presents or one cannot obtain a relatively accurate priori knowledge of inertia. This paper eliminates this problem and realizes ideal online inertia identification regardless of load condition and initial error. The algorithm in this paper integrates a full-order Kalman Observer and Recursive Least Squares, and introduces adaptive controllers to enhance the robustness. It has a better performance when iteratively computing load torque and moment of inertia. Theoretical sensitivity analysis of the proposed algorithm is conducted. Compared to traditional methods, the validity of the proposed algorithm is proved by simulation and experiment resu... [more]
Facilitation Processes and Skills Supporting EcoCity Development
Carmen Antuña-Rozado, Justo García-Navarro, Juana Mariño-Drews
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: capacity building, EcoCity, EcoCity facilitation, local adaptation, Medellín, participation, sustainable urban development, Zambia
Ecocities can provide solutions for the improvement of human settlements around the world and the living conditions therein, but in the authors’ experience, only as long as they are able to address the following questions correctly: How to formulate an ecocity concept that, considering issues of general concern, can be at the same time adapted to different local conditions? What are the instruments supporting the development and implementation of ecocity solutions? VTT’s EcoCity concept for sustainable community and neighbourhood regeneration and development has been designed in response to the first question. Likewise, specific methodologies and effective facilitation processes and skills have been developed in response to the second question. Since the methodologies have been discussed in a previous scientific article, the present one focuses on the facilitation processes and skills, and also on other related, fundamental aspects like participation, adaptation, capacity building, etc... [more]
A Superconducting Induction Motor with a High Temperature Superconducting Armature: Electromagnetic Theory, Design and Analysis
Bin Liu, Rod Badcock, Hang Shu, Jin Fang
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: aramid fiber, cryogenic cooling system, flux density distributions, high temperature superconducting (HTS), squirrel-cage induction motor, superconducting coils, variable-voltage variable-frequency (VVVF)
Large electric superconducting machines are being sought to solve emissions challenges in aircraft and provide a solution to >12 MW wind turbine electricity generation. Superconducting motors with only high temperature superconducting (HTS) armatures can offer advantages of high reliability, high power density, and high efficiency compared with conventional superconducting motors. In this paper, a novel HTS squirrel-cage induction motor is proposed for high speed operation, which adopts the structure of HTS windings with a certain inclination angle in the stator slots. Due to the limitation of curvature radius of superconducting tapes, the pitch of HTS windings can be only set to 1 and adopt the short pitch arrangement structure, which such design details of the HTS motor would ensure the superconducting coils can undertake larger current and reduce AC losses. In order to keep the HTS windings in superconducting state and larger current density, a special fixed cryogenic cooling system... [more]
Evaluation of Thermal Comfort Conditions in Retrofitted Facades Using Test Cells and Considering Overheating Scenarios in a Mediterranean Climate
Carmen María Calama-González, Rafael Suárez, Ángel Luis León-Rodríguez, Samuel Domínguez-Amarillo
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: energy retrofitting, heatwave periods, housing stock, Mediterranean climate, monitoring, test cell, thermal comfort, ventilation system
Energy retrofitting of the housing stock is a priority in current regulatory standards as a means of reducing energy consumption. The strategies used in retrofitting housing stock ought to respond both to regulatory conditions and to two challenges: specific climate conditions and the improvement of comfort conditions. These issues are especially important in the warmer regions of the Mediterranean, and will be even more so in the future due to climate change. The aim of this paper is to assess the influence that the improvement of facade insulation and the use of ventilation have on the existing housing stock. To do so, an energy evaluation is conducted using on-site monitoring of free-running conditions in test cells reproducing a residential room, both in current condition and with the retrofitted proposal, in Seville (Spain). The results obtained show limited improvement of the facade insulation when outdoor temperatures are high, as well as the influence of ventilation, mainly noc... [more]
Technical Aspects and Energy Effects of Waste Heat Recovery from District Heating Boiler Slag
Mariusz Tańczuk, Maciej Masiukiewicz, Stanisław Anweiler, Robert Junga
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: coal slag, heat recovery, high temperature heat pump, thermodynamic analysis, waste energy
Coal continues to dominate in the structure of the heat production system in some European countries. Coal-fired boilers in district heating and power generation systems are accompanied by the formation of large quantities of slag and ash. Due to considerable high temperature, slag may be used as a source of waste energy. In this study, the technical possibilities of recovery slag’s physical enthalpy from grate-fired district heating boiler of 45 MW thermal capacity are analyzed. The aim of the work is to estimate the waste energy potential of the slag in analyzed boiler and proposition of the heat recovery system. The construction and design of the existing deslagging system was examined. Studies have shown that high water temperature accelerates system wear. Recovering heat from this system decreases the water temperature, which extends the trouble-free working time. The slag parameters were determined, including the temperature at the outlet of the boiler and the temperature after l... [more]
Experimental Campaign Tests on Ultra Micro Gas Turbines, Fuel Supply Comparison and Optimization
Roberto Capata, Matteo Saracchini
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: experimental tests, fuel consumption, micro turbine
The increasing demand for miniaturized radio-controlled vehicles inspired the following research. The uses of these unmanned miniaturized/micro vehicles range from aero-modeling to drones for urban control and military applications too. The common characteristic of these vehicles is the need for a light and compact propulsion system. The radio-controlled (RC) turbines for modeling are ideally suited for this purpose, guaranteeing the necessary thrust with compactness and lightness. This device is a miniaturized turbojet, and it is generally composed of three basic elements: compressor, combustion chamber and turbine. The main goal of the paper is to evaluate the turbojet performance for considering the possibility of its use as a range extender in a hybrid vehicle. Considering the total volume constraints, it will be important to evaluate the specific fuel consumption. Also from the environmental point of view, the possibility of feeding the device with gas has been considered and, con... [more]
A Generalised Assessment of Working Fluids and Radial Turbines for Non-Recuperated Subcritical Organic Rankine Cycles
Martin T. White, Abdulnaser I. Sayma
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: computed-aided molecular design (CAMD), organic Rankine cycle (ORC), radial turbine design, small-scale, working-fluid selection
The aim of this paper is to conduct a generalised assessment of both optimal working fluids and radial turbine designs for small-scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems across a range of heat-source temperatures. The former has been achieved by coupling a thermodynamic model of subcritical, non-recperated cycles with the Peng⁻Robinson equation of state, and optimising the working-fluid and cycle parameters for heat-source temperatures ranging between 80 ° C and 360 ° C . The critical temperature of the working fluid is found to be an important parameter governing working-fluid selection. Moreover, a linear correlation between heat-source temperature and the optimal critical temperature that achieves maximum power output has been found for heat-source temperatures below 300 ° C ( T cr = 0.830 T hi + 41.27 ). This correlation has been validated against cycle calculations completed for nine predefined working fluids using both the Peng⁻Robinson equation... [more]
Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of the Inorganic Deposits from Water in Domestic and Technical Heat Exchangers
Johannes Kiefer, Alexander Stärk, Agnita Lynda Kiefer, Heike Glade
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: boiler, carbonate, chemical analysis, debris, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, heat exchanger, scale, sulfate
The deposition of insoluble inorganic substances on heat exchanger surfaces has a strong negative influence on the heat transfer and thus on the performance of the apparatus and the process. The analysis of the deposits is a crucial step towards the development of suitable technologies for scaling mitigation and prevention. Such analysis, however, is challenging and often requires advanced instrumentation and sample preparation. To overcome this problem, we present a straightforward analytical approach based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We demonstrate that FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the chemical analysis of inorganic deposits. For example, it can identify the common anions in scales such as sulfates and carbonates. It can even distinguish between salts with the same anion but different cations such as calcium and sodium. Test measurements are performed on the deposits from a domestic water cooker and from the evaporator of a seawater desalination pil... [more]
Experimental Research on the Impactive Dynamic Effect of Gas-Pulverized Coal of Coal and Gas Outburst
Haitao Sun, Jie Cao, Minghui Li, Xusheng Zhao, Linchao Dai, Dongling Sun, Bo Wang, Boning Zhai
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: coal and gas outburst, laboratory simulation experiment, propagation model, shock wave, two-phase flow of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas
Coal and gas outburst is one of the major serious natural disasters during underground coal, and the shock air flow produced by outburst has a huge threat on the mine safety. In order to study the two-phase flow of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas migration properties and its shock effect during the process of coal and gas outburst, the coal samples of the outburst coal seam in Yuyang Coal Mine, Chongqing, China were selected as the experimental subjects. By using the self-developed coal and gas outburst simulation test device, we simulated the law of two-phase flow of a mixture of pulverized coal and gas in the roadway network where outburst happened. The results showed that the air in the roadway around the outburst port is disturbed by the shock wave, where the pressure and temperature are abruptly changed. For the initial gas pressure of 0.35 MPa, the air pressure in different locations of the roadway fluctuated and eventually remain stab... [more]
Influence of Battery Parametric Uncertainties on the State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-Based Batteries
Ana-Irina Stroe, Jinhao Meng, Daniel-Ioan Stroe, Maciej Świerczyński, Remus Teodorescu, Søren Knudsen Kær
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: equivalent electrical circuit, extended Kalman filter, hybrid pulse power characterization test, lithium titanate oxide (LTO) batteries, lithium-ion batteries, model parameterization, state of charge (SOC)
State of charge (SOC) is one of the most important parameters in battery management systems, as it indicates the available battery capacity at every moment. There are numerous battery model-based methods used for SOC estimation, the accuracy of which depends on the accuracy of the model considered to describe the battery dynamics. The SOC estimation method proposed in this paper is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and nonlinear battery model which was parameterized using extended laboratory tests performed on several 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries. The developed SOC estimation algorithm was successfully verified for a step discharge profile at five different temperatures and considering various initial SOC initialization values, showing a maximum SOC estimation error of 1.16% and a maximum voltage estimation error of 44 mV. Furthermore, by carrying out a sensitivity analysis it was showed that the SOC and voltage estimation error are only slightl... [more]
Power Management of the DC Bus Connected Converters in a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid Tied to the Main Grid
Robert Antonio Salas-Puente, Silvia Marzal, Raúl González-Medina, Emilio Figueres, Gabriel Garcera
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: communication with power converters, microgrid, power management algorithm
In this paper, a centralized control strategy for the efficient power management of power converters composing a hybrid AC/DC microgrid is explained. The study is focused on the converters connected to the DC bus. The proposed power management algorithm is implemented in a microgrid central processor which is based on assigning several operation functions to each of the generators, loads and energy storage systems in the microgrid. The power flows between the DC and AC buses are studied in several operational scenarios to verify the proposed control. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm allows control of the power dispatch inside the microgrid properly by performing the following tasks: communication among power converters, the grid operator and loads; connection and disconnection of loads; control of the power exchange between the distributed generators and the energy storage system and, finally, supervision of the power dispatch limit set by the grid ope... [more]
A Case Study of Control and Improved Simplified Swarm Optimization for Economic Dispatch of a Stand-Alone Modular Microgrid
Xianyong Zhang, Wei-chang Yeh, Yunzhi Jiang, Yaohong Huang, Yingwang Xiao, Li Li
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: control, diesel generator, economic dispatch, simplified swarm optimization, solar power, stand-alone modular microgrid, storage battery, three-port converter, wind power
Due to the complex configuration and control framework, the conventional microgrid is not cost-effective for engineering applications with small or medium capacity. A stand-alone modular microgrid with separated AC bus and decentralized control strategy is proposed in this paper. Each module is a self-powered system, which consists of wind and solar power, a storage battery, load and three-port converter. The modules are interconnected by three-port converters to form the microgrid. Characteristics, operation principle, control of the modular microgrid and the three-port converter are analyzed in detail. Distributed storage batteries enable power exchanges among modules to enhance economic returns. Economic dispatch of the stand-alone modular microgrid is a mixed-integer programming problem. A day-ahead operation optimization model including fuel cost, battery operation cost, and power transmission cost is established. Because there are so many constraints, it is difficult to produce a... [more]
An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System
Woo-Seok Lee, Jin-Hak Kim, Shin-Young Cho, Il-Oun Lee
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: series-series compensated circuit, wireless battery charging system, wireless power transfer
This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT) system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless battery charging system can implement easily most other charging profiles. In this paper, the proposed wireless battery charging system is implemented and the feasibility is verified experimentally according to constant-current constant-voltage charging profile or multi-step current charging profile.
Study of Photovoltaics and LED Energy Efficiency: Case Study in Hungary
Gábor Pintér, Nóra Hegedűsné Baranyai, Alec Wiliams, Henrik Zsiborács
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy policy, Hungary, LED street lighting, photovoltaic systems, solar energy
Photovoltaic (PV) energy and energy efficiency have an increasing role in global energy usage. This paper is a study of building photovoltaic systems (PVS) to modernize existing or developed street lighting systems in Hungarian villages of 900⁻1200 inhabitants. The objective of this study is to show the economic questions related to the investments in photovoltaic systems and light emitting diode (LED) street lighting developments under Hungarian regulations. With the help of this study, it may be possible to support local governments to use combined photovoltaic energy for street lighting developments. This article presents the Hungarian regulations regarding photovoltaic systems and shows why local governments are not able to connect their street lighting systems to photovoltaic systems. Three different investment alternatives for local governments are studied with the help of economic indicators. Our conclusion is that investments in photovoltaic street lighting systems can be profi... [more]
Study on the Effect of Iron-Based Deoxidizing Inhibitors for Coal Spontaneous Combustion Prevention
Chaoyu Hao, Yanling Chen, Jiren Wang, Cunbao Deng, Guang Xu, Fengwei Dai, Rui Si, Hongfei Wang, Haoyu Wang
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: coal spontaneous combustion, comparative experiment, coordination resistance, iron-based deoxidizing inhibitor, oxygen consumption
To improve the prevention of spontaneous coal combustion, reduced iron powder and other ingredients should be added together to form an iron-based deoxidizing inhibitor, with the dual effect of oxygen consumption and inhibition. The oxygen consumption rate of the inhibitor was studied through experiments. According to the theory of coordination resistance, the coordination resistance of Fe3+ was studied via the density functional method. Subsequently, a comparative experiment of the effects on spontaneous coal combustion was conducted. The research shows that several kinds of common resistance agents that are added to the reduced iron powder can consume oxygen. However, the rate of oxygen consumption varies. Fe3+ produced by the reduced iron powder indicates a strong coordination resistance. When compared with traditional inhibitors of Mg2+, Fe3+ has a stronger inhibition effect on the N, P, and S reactive groups in coal. The overall inhibitory effect is better than that of traditional... [more]
Frequency Response Analysis of a Single-Area Power System with a Modified LFC Model Considering Demand Response and Virtual Inertia
Muhammad Saeed Uz Zaman, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari, Khalid Mousa Hazazi, Zunaib Maqsood Haider, Raza Haider, Chul-Hwan Kim
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: demand response, load-frequency control, steady-state error, system frequency response, virtual inertia, virtual synchronous generator
The modern electric power system is foreseen to have increased penetration of controllable loads under demand response programs and renewable energy resources coupled with energy storage systems which can provide virtual inertia. In this paper, the conventional model of an electric power system is appended by considering, individually and collaboratively, the role of demand response and virtual inertia for the purpose of frequency analysis and control. Most existing literature on this topic either considers one of these two roles or lacks in providing a general model of power system with demand response and virtual inertia. The proposed model is presented in general form and can include/exclude demand response and/or virtual inertia. Further, power system operator can opt the power shares from conventional, demand response, and virtual inertia loops for frequency regulation and can also evaluate the impact of other parameters such as time delays and frequency deadbands on system freque... [more]
Optimization and Scale-Up of Coffee Mucilage Fermentation for Ethanol Production
David Orrego, Arley David Zapata-Zapata, Daehwan Kim
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: bioethanol, coffee mucilage, Fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, second generation biofuels
Coffee, one of the most popular food commodities and beverage ingredients worldwide, is considered as a potential source for food industry and second-generation biofuel due to its various by-products, including mucilage, husk, skin (pericarp), parchment, silver-skin, and pulp, which can be produced during the manufacturing process. A number of research studies have mainly investigated the valuable properties of brewed coffee (namely, beverage), functionalities, and its beneficial effects on cognitive and physical performances; however, other residual by-products of coffee, such as its mucilage, have rarely been studied. In this manuscript, the production of bioethanol from mucilage was performed both in shake flasks and 5 L bio-reactors. The use of coffee mucilage provided adequate fermentable sugars, primarily glucose with additional nutrient components, and it was directly fermented into ethanol using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The initial tests at the lab scale were evaluate... [more]
Influence of the Elastic Dilatation of Mining-Induced Unloading Rock Mass on the Development of Bed Separation
Weibing Zhu, Shengchao Yu, Jingmin Xu
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: bed separation, key stratum, mining-induced rock mass, super-thick igneous rock, unloading dilatation
Understanding how mining-induced strata movement, fractures, bed separation, and ground subsidence evolve is an area of great importance for the underground coal mining industry, particularly for disaster control and sustainable mining. Based on the rules of mining-induced strata movement and stress evolution, accumulative dilatation of mining-induced unloading rock mass is first proposed in this paper. Triaxial unloading tests and theoretical calculation were used to investigate the influence of elastic dilatation of mining-induced unloading rock mass on the development of bed separation in the context of district No. 102 where a layer of super-thick igneous sill exists in the Haizi colliery. It is shown that the elastic dilatation coefficient of mining-induced unloading hard rocks and coal were 0.9~1.0‰ and 2.63‰ respectively under the axial load of 16 MPa, which increased to 1.30~1.59‰ and 4.88‰ when the axial load was 32 MPa. After successively excavating working faces No. 1022 and... [more]
Linear and Nonlinear Causality between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico 1965⁻2014
Mario Gómez, Aitor Ciarreta, Ainhoa Zarraga
June 23, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: causality, economic growth, energy consumption, Mexico, structural breaks
This paper analyzes the causal link between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth in Mexico between 1965 and 2014, with the presence of structural breaks stemming from the series. To that end, unit root with structural breaks, cointegration, and linear and nonlinear causality tests are employed. The results show that there is a long-run relationship between production, capital, labor, and energy, and linear causal links from total and disaggregated energy consumption to economic growth. A nonlinear causality also exists from energy consumption, the transport sector, capital, and labor to output. These results support the growth hypothesis, which maintains that energy is an important input factor for economic activity and that energy conservation policies impact the economic growth in Mexico.
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