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Records with Keyword: Extraction
Antioxidant Molecules from Plant Waste: Extraction Techniques and Biological Properties
Cynthia E. Lizárraga-Velázquez, Nayely Leyva-López, Crisantema Hernández, Erick Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Jesús A. Salazar-Leyva, Idalia Osuna-Ruíz, Emmanuel Martínez-Montaño, Javier Arrizon, Abraham Guerrero, Asahel Benitez-Hernández, Anaguiven Ávalos-Soriano
June 21, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: bioactive peptides, Extraction, fruit, green technologies, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, residues, terpenes, valorization, vegetable
The fruit, vegetable, legume, and cereal industries generate many wastes, representing an environmental pollution problem. However, these wastes are a rich source of antioxidant molecules such as terpenes, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, and bioactive peptides with potential applications mainly in the food and pharmaceutical industries, and they exhibit multiple biological properties including antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antihypertensive, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. The aforementioned has increased studies on the recovery of antioxidant compounds using green technologies to value plant waste, since they represent more efficient and sustainable processes. In this review, the main antioxidant molecules from plants are briefly described and the advantages and disadvantages of the use of conventional and green extraction technologies used for the recovery and optimization of the yield of antioxidant naturals are detailed; finally, recent studies on biological properties of... [more]
Alcohol Dehydration by Extractive Distillation with Use of Aminoethers of Boric Acid
Alexander V. Klinov, Alexander V. Malygin, Alina R. Khairullina, Sergey E. Dulmaev, Ilsiya M. Davletbaeva
May 27, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: aqueous solution, Extraction, UNIFAC model, vapor–liquid equilibrium
Aminoethers of boric acid (AEBA) were studied as potential extractants for the separation of aqueous−alcoholic azeotropic mixtures by extractive distillation. The conditions of vapor−liquid equilibrium in aqueous solutions of ethanol and isopropanol in the presence of AEBA were studied. The division of AEBA molecules into group components was proposed, and previously unknown geometric parameters of the boron group and the energetic pair parameters of the boron group with the alkane group, ether group, amine-3d group, and alcohol group were determined within the framework of the Universal Functional Group Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC) model. The modeling of the extractive rectification process of an ethanol−water mixture with AEBA as extractant has been carried out. The dependences of the cost function on the extractant flow rate, the residual water content in it and the number of theoretical trays were obtained. A technological scheme for ethanol dehydration has been proposed, and its... [more]
Significant Effect of Sample Pretreatment on Ara h1 Extraction and Improved Sensitive SWCNT-Based Detection through Optimization
Jinyoung Lee
May 25, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Extraction, nanobiosensor, peanut allergen, pretreatment, single-walled carbon nanotube
Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based nanobiosensors have received increasing attention from food researchers as a future instrument of food safety due to their high sensitivity. However, the pretreatment process of the sample applying to SWCNT-based nanobiosensor is required to be more delicate compared to other analyses. In this study, the pretreatment process of Ara h1 protein from its retained complex food matrix was optimized using various buffer compounds and the pretreated allergenic Ara h1 obtained for the optimized process was detected by SWCNT-based nanobiosensor. In the pretreatment process, the buffer extraction method with tris buffer (Tris-HNO3, pH 8.4) was developed and used to extract native peanut allergens from foods. The extraction procedure for Ara h1 from peanut butter foods was performed by varying the temperature, extraction time, and additives (NaCl and skim milk powder). The results of these tests using our SWCNT-based biosensor were analyzed to evaluate... [more]
Biotechnological Processing of Laying Hen Paw Collagen into Gelatins
Robert Gál, Pavel Mokrejš, Jana Pavlačková, Ngo Thi Hong Linh, Jiří Mlček
May 25, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Batch Process, biotechnology, by-products, crosslinking, endoprotease, Extraction, gelatins, laying hens, paws, processing
By-products of laying hens represent a promising raw material source with a high collagen content, which is currently not adequately used. The aim of the paper is to prepare gelatins from laying hen paws. The purified collagen raw material was processed by a biotechnological process using the food endoprotease Protamex®. After cleavage of the cross-links in the collagen structure, the gelatin was extracted by a batch process with a stirrer in two extraction steps. The influence of the extraction process on the yield of gelatins and on selected qualitative parameters of gelatins was monitored by two-level factor experiments with three selected process factors. The studied factors were: enzyme dosage (0.2−0.8%), enzyme processing time (24−72 h) and gelatin extraction time (30−120 min). After the first extraction step at 75 °C, gelatin was extracted with a yield of 8.2−21.4% and a gel strength of 275−380 Bloom. In the second extraction step at 80−100 °C, it is possible to obtain another p... [more]
Characterisation of Bioactive Ingredients in Extracts of Fresh and Dried Coniferous Trees for the Development of Sustainable Packaging Materials
Thomas Havelt, Jan Niklas Frase, Ralf Pude, Michaela Schmitz
May 17, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Abies nordmanniana, Abies procera, additive, antioxidant, coniferous woods, Extraction, Picea abies, Picea pungens, stabiliser, total phenolic content, UV
Background: Coniferous woods (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach, Abies procera Rehd, Picea abies (L.) H.Karst, and Picea pungens Engelm.) could contain useful secondary metabolites to produce sustainable packaging materials, e.g., by substitution of harmful petrol-based additives in plastic packaging. This study aims to characterise the antioxidant and light-absorbing properties and ingredients of different coniferous wood extracts with regard to different plant fragments and drying conditions. Furthermore, the valorisation of used Christmas trees is evaluated. Methods: Different drying and extraction techniques were applied with the extracts being characterised by determining the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and absorbance in the ultraviolet range (UV). Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and an acid−butanol assay (ABA) were used to characterise the extract constituents. Results: All the extracts show a considerably high UV absor... [more]
Olive Tree Leaves—A Source of Valuable Active Compounds
Fereshteh Safarzadeh Markhali, José A. Teixeira, Cristina M. R. Rocha
April 16, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: bioactive compounds, by-products, Extraction, olive leaves, polyphenols, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The agricultural and processing activities of olive crops generate a substantial amount of food by-products, particularly olive leaves, which are mostly underexploited, representing a significant threat to the environment. Olive leaves are endowed with endogenous bioactive compounds. Their beneficial/health-promoting potential, together with environmental protection and circular economy, merit their exploitation to recover and reuse natural components that are potentially safer alternatives to synthetic counterparts. These biomass residues have great potential for extended industrial applications in food/dietary systems but have had limited commercial uses so far. In this regard, many researchers have endeavoured to determine a green/sustainable means to replace the conventional/inefficient methods currently used. This is not an easy task as a sustainable bio-processing approach entails careful designing to maximise the liberation of compounds with minimum use of (i) processing time, (... [more]
Non-Extractable Polyphenols from Food By-Products: Current Knowledge on Recovery, Characterisation, and Potential Applications
Yubin Ding, Ksenia Morozova, Matteo Scampicchio, Giovanna Ferrentino
December 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidants, characterisation, Extraction, food by-products, non-extractable polyphenols
Non-extractable polyphenols (NEPs), or bound polyphenols, are a significant fraction of polyphenols that are retained in the extraction residues after conventional aqueous organic solvent extraction. They include both high molecular weight polymeric polyphenols and low molecular weight phenolics attached to macromolecules. Current knowledge proved that these bioactive compounds possess high antioxidant, antidiabetic, and other biological activities. Plant-based food by-products, such as peels, pomace, and seeds, possess high amount of NEPs. The recovery of these valuable compounds is considered an effective way to recycle food by-products and mitigate pollution, bad manufacturing practice, and economic loss caused by the residues management. The current challenge to valorise NEPs from plant-based by-products is to increase the extraction efficiency with proper techniques, choose appropriate characterising methods, and explore potential functions to use in some products. Based on this s... [more]
Organoboron Ionic Liquids as Extractants for Distillation Process of Binary Ethanol + Water Mixtures
Ilsiya M. Davletbaeva, Alexander V. Klinov, Alina R. Khairullina, Alexander V. Malygin, Sergey E. Dulmaev, Alisa R. Davletbaeva, Timur A. Mukhametzyanov
July 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: aqueous solution, Extraction, ionic liquids, physicochemical properties, vapor–liquid equilibrium
Aminoethers of boric acid, which are organoboron ionic liquids, were synthesized by using boric acid, triethanolamine, and triethylene glycol/diethylene glycol. Due to the formation of intermolecular complexes of borates, the structure of aminoethers of boric acid contains ion pairs separated in space, giving these compounds the properties inherent to ionic liquids. It is established that the thermal stability of aminoethers under normal atmospheric conditions increases with an increase in the size of the glycol. According to measurements of fast scanning calorimetry, density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity, water is involved in the structural organization of aminoethers of boric acid. The impact of the most thermostable organoboron ionic liquids on the phase equilibrium conditions of the vapor−liquid azeotropic ethanol−water mixture is studied. It is shown that the presence of these substances leads to increase in the relative volatility of ethanol. In general, the mag... [more]
Application of a Liquid Biphasic Flotation (LBF) System for Protein Extraction from Persiscaria Tenulla Leaf
Hui Shi Saw, Revathy Sankaran, Kuan Shiong Khoo, Kit Wayne Chew, Win Nee Phong, Malcolm S.Y. Tang, Siew Shee Lim, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid, Mu. Naushad, Pau Loke Show
April 14, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Extraction, leaf, liquid biphasic flotation, polygonum, protein
Persiscaria tenulla, commonly known as Polygonum, is a plant belonging to the family Polygonaceae, which originated from and is widely found in Southeast Asia countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The leaf of the plant is believed to have active ingredients that are responsible for therapeutic effects. In order to take full advantage of a natural medicinal plant for the application in the pharmaceutical and food industries, extraction and separation techniques are essential. In this study, an emerging and rapid extraction approach known as liquid biphasic flotation (LBF) is proposed for the extraction of protein from Persiscaria tenulla leaves. The scope of this study is to establish an efficient, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective technology for the extraction of protein from therapeutic leaves. Based on the ideal conditions of the small LBF system, a 98.36% protein recovery yield and a 79.12% separation efficiency were achieved. The upscaling study... [more]
Controlled Hydrodynamic Cavitation: A Review of Recent Advances and Perspectives for Greener Processing
Debabrata Panda, Virendra Kumar Saharan, Sivakumar Manickam
April 14, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: biofuel, emulsification, Extraction, food processing, green processing, hydrodynamic cavitation, remediation
The 20th century has witnessed a remarkable enhancement in the demand for varieties of consumer products, ranging from food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, to other industries. To enhance the quality of the product and to reduce the production cost, industries are gradually inclined towards greener processing technologies. Cavitation-based technologies are gaining interest among processing technologies due to their cost effectiveness in operation, minimization of toxic solvent usage, and ability to obtain superior processed products compared to conventional methods. Also, following the recent advancements, cavitation technology with large-scale processing applicability is only denoted to the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC)-based method. This review includes a general overview of hydrodynamic cavitation-based processing technologies and a detailed discussion regarding the process effectiveness. HC has demonstrated its usefulness in food processing, extraction of valuable products, biofuel synt... [more]
Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of GAC Peel: An Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Recovering Carotenoids and Antioxidant Capacity
Hoang V. Chuyen, Paul D. Roach, John B. Golding, Sophie E. Parks, Minh H. Nguyen
February 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: antioxidant capacity, carotenoid, Extraction, Gac peel, Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng., ultrasound
The peel of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.), which is considered as waste of Gac processing, has been found to possess high levels of carotenoids and other antioxidants. This study aimed at determining the optimal conditions of an ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovering carotenoids and antioxidant capacity from Gac peel. A response surface methodology using the Box−Behnken design was employed to investigate the impact of extraction time, temperature and ultrasonic power on the recovery of total carotenoid and antioxidant capacity. The results showed that an extraction time of 76 min, temperature of 50 °C and ultrasonic power of 250 W were the optimal conditions for the extraction. The experimental carotenoid yield and antioxidant capacity obtained under the optimal extraction conditions were validated as 269 mg/100 g DW (dry weight) and 822 µM TE (Trolox equivalent)/100 g DW, respectively. These values were not significantly different from the values predicted by th... [more]
A Mechanistic Model of Mass Transfer in the Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Intact Sorghum Pericarp
Devi Yuni Susanti, Wahyudi Budi Sediawan, Mohammad Fahrurrozi, Muslikhin Hidayat
December 16, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: bioactive, Extraction, mass transfer, mechanistic, model, pericarp, process, sorghum
The extraction of phytochemical compounds from intact red sorghum grains was developed as an alternative process for producing bioactive material in the pharmaceutical industry. A mechanistic model is needed to better understand the process and enable predictive simulations for designing commercial-scale extraction systems. This paper presents a mathematical model for predicting phytochemical concentrations in the solvent and inside the pericarp of the grain at different positions during the extraction. The model is based on the mass transfer mechanism from inside the pericarp to its solid surface by diffusion, and then from the surface to a solvent during the extraction of bioactive compounds. It was numerically solved while using finite-difference approximation. The parameters considered were effective diffusivity inside the pericarp (Dep), mass transfer coefficient from the pericarp surface to the solvent (kc), and distribution coefficient (H). The model simulates the extraction per... [more]
Overview of Alternative Ethanol Removal Techniques for Enhancing Bioethanol Recovery from Fermentation Broth
Hamid Zentou, Zurina Zainal Abidin, Robiah Yunus, Dayang Radiah Awang Biak, Danil Korelskiy
September 23, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, bioethanol, Extraction, pervaporation, separation, stripping, unconventional, vacuum
This study aims at reviewing the alternative techniques for bioethanol recovery, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages, and to investigate the technical challenges facing these alternatives to be widely used. The findings showed that the integration of these techniques with the fermentation process did not meet a large acceptance in the industrial sector. The majority of conducted studies were mainly focusing on ethanol recovery from aqueous standard solution rather than the investigation of these techniques performance in fermentation-separation coupled system. In this context, pervaporation has received more attention as a promising alternative to distillation. However, some challenges are facing the integration of these techniques in the industrial scale as the fouling problem in pervaporation, the toxicity of solvent in liquid extraction, energy consumption in vacuum fermentation. It was also found that there is a lack of the technical economic analysis for these techniques... [more]
Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent-Assisted Pectin Extraction from Pomelo Peel Using Sonoreactor: Experimental Optimization Approach
Amal A. M. Elgharbawy, Adeeb Hayyan, Maan Hayyan, Mohamed E. S. Mirghani, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, Shahidah Nusailah Rashid, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Shan Qin Liew, Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli bin Mohd Yusoff, Yatimah Alias
September 13, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Citrus grandis, definitive screening design, Extraction, natural deep eutectic solvent, pectin, pomelo
Background: Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) can be used for extracting a wide range of biomaterials, such as pectin. This study introduces a new generation of natural solvents for pectin extraction which could replace the conventional solvents in the food industry. Methods: In this study, NADESs were used for pectin extraction from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peels using a sonoreactor. Definitive screening design (DSD) was used to screen the influence of time, temperature, solid/liquid ratio, and NADES/water ratio on the pectin yield and degree of esterification (DE). Results: The primary screening revealed that the best choices for the extraction were choline chloride−malonic acid (ChCl-Mal) and choline chloride−glucose−water (ChCl:Glc:W). Both co-solvents yielded 94% pectin and 52% DE after optimization at 80 °C, with 60 min of sonication, pH < 3.0, and a NADES-to-water ratio of 1:4.5 (v/v). Morphological screening showed a smooth and compact surface of the pectin fro... [more]
Experimental Data of Fluid Phase Equilibria- Correlation and Prediction Models: A Review
Urszula Domańska
July 30, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: (vapor, correlation GE models, COSMO-RS), Extraction, HE, infragrance materials, ionic liquids, limiting activity coefficients, NRHB, or liquid/liquid) phase equilibria, or solid, PC-SAFT, pharmaceuticals, prediction (Mod. UNIFAC
The examples of phase equilibria in binary systems, solid/liquid (SLE), liquid/liquid (LLE), vapor/liquid (VLE), as well as liquid/liquid equilibria in ternary systems mainly containing ionic liquids (ILs), or the infragrance materials, or pharmaceuticals with molecular organic solvents, such as an alcohol, or water, or hydrocarbons, are presented. The most popular correlation methods of the experimental phase equilibrium data are presented, related to the excess Gibbs free energy models such as Wilson, universal-quasichemical, UNIQUAC and non-random two-liquid model, NRTL as well as several popular theories for the modeling of the phase equilibria and excess molar enthalpy, HE in binary or ternary mixtures are presented: the group contribution method (Mod. UNIFAC) and modified UNIFAC model for pharmaceuticals and lattice theory based on non-random hydrogen bonding (NRHB). The SLE, LLE, or VLE and HE of these systems may be described by the Perturbed-Chain Polar Statistical Associating... [more]
Systematic and Model-Assisted Evaluation of Solvent Based- or Pressurized Hot Water Extraction for the Extraction of Artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.
Maximilian Sixt, Jochen Strube
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: artemisinin, Extraction, Green Solvents, Modelling, Pressurized Hot Water Extraction, Simulation
In this study, the solvent based extraction of artemisinin from Artemisia annua L. using acetone in percolation mode is compared to the method of pressurized hot water extraction. Both techniques are simulated by a physico-chemical process model. The model as well as the model parameter determination, including the thermal degradation of artemisinin are shown and discussed. For the conventional extraction, a solvent screening is performed considering various organic solvents. A temperature screening is presented for the systematic design of the pressurized hot water extraction. The best temperature with regards to thermal decomposition and high productivity was found to be 80 °C. Both, conventional percolation and Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) are suitable for the extraction of artemisinin. The extraction curves show a high conformity with the simulation results.
Techno-economic comparison of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation using various extractants
Giancarlo Dalle Ave, Thomas A. Adams II
June 12, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Acetone, Butanol, Cost of CO2 Emissions Avoided, Ethanol, Extraction, Fermentation, Technoeconomic Analysis
This work compares various chemicals for use as extractants in second-generation Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation on economic and environmental bases. Both non-toxic and toxic extractants are considered in this study. The combinative extractive-distillation separation process was modelled using a combination of Microsoft Excel 2013, MATLAB 2015 and Aspen Plus v8.8. Separation trains were designed and optimized for each extractant to best take advantage of extractant properties. Upstream units considered in this analysis include: biomass (switchgrass) solids processing, biomass pre-treatment and saccharification, and fermentation. Downstream processes considered include utility generation and wastewater treatment. The cost of CO2 equivalent emissions avoided (CCA) was used as the metric to compare the environmental impact of each process as compared to conventional petroleum-based gasoline. The economic and environmental best extractant is shown to be 2-ethyl-hexanol with a minimum... [more]
Techno-economic comparison of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation using various extractants
Giancarlo Dalle Ave, Thomas A. Adams II
June 12, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Acetone, Butanol, Cost of CO2 Emissions Avoided, Ethanol, Extraction, Fermentation, Technoeconomic Analysis
This work compares various chemicals for use as extractants in second-generation Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation on economic and environmental bases. Both non-toxic and toxic extractants are considered in this study. The combinative extractive-distillation separation process was modelled using a combination of Microsoft Excel 2013, MATLAB 2015 and Aspen Plus v8.8. Separation trains were designed and optimized for each extractant to best take advantage of extractant properties. Upstream units considered in this analysis include: biomass (switchgrass) solids processing, biomass pre-treatment and saccharification, and fermentation. Downstream processes considered include utility generation and wastewater treatment. The cost of CO2 equivalent emissions avoided (CCA) was used as the metric to compare the environmental impact of each process as compared to conventional petroleum-based gasoline. The economic and environmental best extractant is shown to be 2-ethyl-hexanol with a minimum... [more]
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