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Modeling and Harmonic Analysis of a Fractional-Order Zeta Converter
Lingling Xie, Di Wan
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: ESPM, fractional order, harmonic balance, Oustaloup’s, zeta converters
The Zeta converter is an essential and widely used high-order converter. The current modeling studies on Zeta converters are based on the model that devices, such as capacitors and inductors, are of integer order. For this reason, this paper takes the Zeta converter as the research object and conducts an in-depth study on its fractional-order modeling. However, the existing modeling and analysis methods have high computational complexity, the analytical solutions of system variables are tedious, and it is difficult to describe the ripple changes of state variables. This paper combines the principle of harmonic balance with the equivalent small parameter method (ESPM); the approximate analytic steady-state solution of the state variable can be obtained in only three iterative steps in the whole solving process. The DC components and ripples of the state variables obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained by the Oustaloup’s filter-based approximation method; the s... [more]
A Review on Flame Stabilization Technologies for UAV Engine Micro-Meso Scale Combustors: Progress and Challenges
Gurunadh Velidi, Chun Sang Yoo
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: bluff body, combustion efficiency, flame stabilization, micro channel combustion, micro combustors, premixed combustion, UAV combustor
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)s have unique requirements that demand engines with high power-to-weight ratios, fuel efficiency, and reliability. As such, combustion engines used in UAVs are specialized to meet these requirements. There are several types of combustion engines used in UAVs, including reciprocating engines, turbine engines, and Wankel engines. Recent advancements in engine design, such as the use of ceramic materials and microscale combustion, have the potential to enhance engine performance and durability. This article explores the potential use of combustion-based engines, particularly microjet engines, as an alternative to electrically powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems. It provides a review of recent developments in UAV engines and micro combustors, as well as studies on flame stabilization techniques aimed at enhancing engine performance. Heat recirculation methods have been proposed to minimize heat loss to the combustor walls. It has been demonstrated th... [more]
Grid-Connected Phase-Locked Loop Technology Based on a Cascade Second-Order IIR Filter
Shanwen Ke, Yuren Li
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: grid-connected inverter, harmonics, IIR filter, phase-locked loop
The moving average filter-based phase-locked loop (MAF-PLL) can obtain grid synchronization signals accurately under adverse grid conditions with a large amount of harmonics due to the high filtering capability of the MAF. However, MAF-PLL cannot achieve a fast dynamic response in the case of frequency drift, phase angle steps, and unbalanced voltage sag. MAF is essentially an FIR filter, and its filtering performance is hard to be adjusted. To address this issue, this paper proposes an alternative to MAF consisting of a set of cascading second-order IIR filters (CIIRF). Based on MAF, CIIRF introduces multiple zeros and poles from the zero−pole replacement perspective, and by changing the position of the poles, the filter performance can be adjusted. To improve the anti-interference ability of PLL based on CIIRF (CIIRF-PLL) in the presence of grid frequency drift, a frequency-adaptive scheme is also proposed. Simulation and experimental results show that CIIRF-PLL can accurately track... [more]
Combined Utilization of Cylinder and Different Shaped Alumina Nanoparticles in the Base Fluid for the Effective Cooling System Design of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs
Fatih Selimefendigil, Furkan Dilbaz, Hakan F. Öztop
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: cylinder, finite element method, lithium-ion battery pack, nanoparticle shape, thermal management
It is important to consider the thermal management of lithium-ion batteries to overcome their limitations in usage and improve their performance and life cycles. In this study, a novel cooling system for the thermal management of lithium-ion battery packs is proposed by using an inner cylinder in the cooling channel and different-shaped nanoparticles in the base fluid, which is used as the cooling medium. The performance improvements in a 20 Ah capacity battery are compared by using a water−boehmite alumina (AlOOH) nanofluid, considering cylinder-, brick-, and blade-shaped nanoparticles up to a solid volume fraction of 2%. The numerical analysis is conducted using the finite element method, and Reynolds numbers between 100 and 600 are considered. When the efficacy of the coolants utilized is compared, it is apparent that as the Reynolds number increases, both cooling media decrease the highest temperature and homogenize the temperatures in the battery. The utilization of the cylinder i... [more]
Novel Harmonic Distortion Prediction Methods for Meshed Transmission Grids with Large Amount of Underground Cables
Vladislav Akhmatov, Bjarne Søndergaard Bukh, Chris Liberty Skovgaard, Bjarne Christian Gellert
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: harmonic assessment, harmonic distortion, harmonic impedance, harmonic voltage measurement, meshed grid, method, Simulation, statistical method, underground cables, validation
The tremendous and fast green transition in Denmark has initiated the large-scale grid-integration of renewable energy sources, electrification of energy consumption, and establishment of PtX and Energy Islands, setting goals for transmission grid development—such as the establishment of new connections—and for grid reconstruction—such as the extensive substitution of overhead lines (OHLs) with underground cables (UGCs). The share of UGCs in the Danish transmission grid is increasing. Presence of UGC has resulted in that resonances of the harmonic impedance characteristics of the transmission grid are brought within the harmonic order range coinciding with the harmonic emission sources and causing systemwide increase of the harmonic voltage distortion in the 400 kV transmission grid. The transformation of the 400 kV transmission grid has given rise to the need to predict harmonic voltage distortion using simulation models to secure an adequate power quality and support investment decis... [more]
Adaptive Control Strategy for Stationary Electric Battery Storage Systems with Reliable Peak Load Limitation at Maximum Self-Consumption of Locally Generated Energy
Florian Klausmann, Anna-Lena Klingler
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: BESS, charge management, control strategy, economic optimization, energy management, peak load limitation, peak-shaving, self-consumption, stationary battery
Nowadays, stationary battery storage systems are generally used to optimize the self-consumption of electricity generated locally or to limit the peak load of the local grid connection. Self-consumption optimization aims to achieve economic benefits by using more of the self-generated electricity within the local grid. Batteries used for the optimization of self-consumption tend to present low states of charge and, therefore, normally do not contribute to peak load limitation. Peak load limitation is used to minimize the grid connection power to enable more cost-efficient grid connections. However, this function can only be achieved year-round if there is sufficient surplus electricity production or if the battery can be charged from the grid. In the latter case, the batteries are often fully charged and do not significantly optimize the self-consumption. This study presents a new operating strategy that combines all the advantages of the previous operating modes with none of the disad... [more]
The Fuel Flexibility of Gas Turbines: A Review and Retrospective Outlook
Michel Molière
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biofuels, combustion, fossil fuels, fuel flexibility, gas turbine, Hydrogen, low emissions
Land-based gas turbines (GTs) are continuous-flow engines that run with permanent flames once started and at stationary pressure, temperature, and flows at stabilized load. Combustors operate without any moving parts and their substantial air excess enables complete combustion. These features provide significant space for designing efficient and versatile combustion systems. In particular, as heavy-duty gas turbines have moderate compression ratios and ample stall margins, they can burn not only high- and medium-BTU fuels but also low-BTU ones. As a result, these machines have gained remarkable fuel flexibility. Dry Low Emissions combustors, which were initially confined to burning standard natural gas, have been gradually adapted to an increasing number of alternative gaseous fuels. The paper first delivers essential technical considerations that underlie this important fuel portfolio. It then reviews the spectrum of alternative GT fuels which currently extends from lean gases (coal b... [more]
Risk Assessment of a Hydrogen Refueling Station in an Urban Area
Jongbeom Kwak, Haktae Lee, Somin Park, Jaehyuk Park, Seungho Jung
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Hydrogen, hydrogen refueling station, hydrogen risk assessment model, HyRAM, quantitative risk assessment
After the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015, many countries worldwide focused on the hydrogen economy, aiming for eco-friendly and renewable energy by moving away from the existing carbon economy, which has been the primary source of global warming. Hydrogen is the most common element on Earth. As a light substance, hydrogen can diffuse quickly; however, it also has a small risk of explosion. Representative explosion accidents have included the Muskingum River Power Plant Vapor Cloud Explosion accident in 2007 and the Silver Eagle Refinery Vapor Cloud Explosion accident in 2009. In addition, there was an explosion in a hydrogen tank in Gangneung, Korea, in May 2019, and a hydrogen refueling station (HRS) in Norway exploded in 2018. Despite this risk, Korea is promoting the establishment of HRSs in major urban centers, including downtown areas and public buildings, by using the Regulatory Sandbox to install HRSs. This paper employed the Hydrogen Risk Assessment Model (HyRAM) of Sandia... [more]
State-of-the-Art Grid Stability Improvement Techniques for Electric Vehicle Fast-Charging Stations for Future Outlooks
Kabir Momoh, Shamsul Aizam Zulkifli, Petr Korba, Felix Rafael Segundo Sevilla, Arif Nur Afandi, Alfredo Velazquez-Ibañez
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: battery state of charge, electric vehicle, fast charging station, grid stability, virtual synchronous machine
The growing trend for electric vehicles (EVs) and fast-charging stations (FCSs) will cause the overloading of grids due to the high current injection from FCSs’ converters. The insensitive nature of the state of charge (SOC) of EV batteries during FCS operation often results in grid instability problems, such as voltage and frequency deviation at the point of common coupling (PCC). Therefore, many researchers have focused on two-stage converter control (TSCC) and single-stage converter (SSC) control for FCS stability enhancement, and suggested that SSC architectures are superior in performance, unlike the TSCC methods. However, only a few research works have focused on SSC techniques, despite the techniques’ ability to provide inertia and damping support through the virtual synchronous machine (VSM) strategy due to power decoupling and dynamic response problems. TSCC methods deploy current or voltage control for controlling EVs’ SOC battery charging through proportional-integral (PI),... [more]
Consumer Preferences for Smart Energy Services Based on AMI Data in the Power Sector
Hye-Jeong Lee, Beom Jin Chung, Sung-Yoon Huh
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: choice experiment, smart energy service, stated preference techniques, willingness to pay
Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is becoming increasingly popular as an efficient means of energy demand management. By collecting energy data through AMI, it is possible to provide users with information that can induce them to change their behavior. To ensure that AMI continues to expand and to encourage the use of energy data, it is important to increase consumer participation and analyze their preferred service attributes. This study utilized a choice experiment to analyze consumer preferences for and acceptance of smart energy services based on AMI data. The results of a mixed logit model estimation show that consumers prefer the electricity information service for individual households and the social safety-net service among convergence services. A scenario analysis confirms that monetary compensation to offset any additional charges is important to maintain the level of consumer acceptance. These empirical findings offer insights for policymakers and companies seeking to d... [more]
Study on the Compressive and Tensile Properties of Gneiss Outcrop of Bozhong 196 Gas Field in China
Lianzhi Yang, Tong Niu, Fanmin He, Zhiyong Song
May 26, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Brazilian splitting, compressive strength, energy of fracture, tensile strength, uniaxial compression
In this paper, based on the gneiss outcrop of Bozhong 196 gas field in China, uniaxial compression and Brazil splitting tests were conducted by using cores of different orientations. The following compression properties were studied: the elastic compression modulus, Poisson’s ratio and compressive strength of the gneiss outcrop. The following tensile properties were studied: the tensile modulus, the tensile strength and peak energy rate of gneiss outcrop. The results demonstrate the following: (1) The elastic compression modulus, compressive strength, tensile strength and peak energy rate of gneiss specimens with horizontal core-taking are greater than those with vertical core-taking. (2) The elastic compression modulus, Poisson’s ratio and compressive strength of horizontally cored gneiss specimens are 29.688−45.760 GPa, 0.186−0.386, and 174.94−147.80 MPa, respectively; the elastic compression modulus, Poisson’s ratio and compressive strength of the vertical gneiss specimens are 26.54... [more]
An MV-Connected Ultra-Fast Charging Station Based on MMC and Dual Active Bridge with Multiple dc Buses
Marzio Barresi, Edoardo Ferri, Luigi Piegari
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Batteries, dual-active bridge, electric vehicles, modular multilevel converter, storage systems, ultra-fast charging
The diffusion of electric vehicles will be strongly related to the capacity to charge them in short times. To do so, the necessity of widespread fast charging stations arises. However, their intermittent demand represents a challenging load for grid operators. In order to relieve their impact on the electrical grid operation, integrating storage systems in the charging stations represents a potential solution, although it complicates the overall system management. Moreover, standard converter architectures for the MV grid interface require the installation of bulky transformers and filters. In order to cope with the mentioned problems, this paper proposes an ultra-fast charging station topology based on a modular multilevel converter (MMC) structure and dual-active bridge (DAB) converters. Thanks to the multilevel converter properties, the proposed charging station can be directly interfaced with the MV grid without requiring transformers or filters. Additionally, exploiting the degree... [more]
Analysis and Design of a New High Voltage Gain Interleaved DC−DC Converter with Three-Winding Coupled Inductors for Renewable Energy Systems
Shin-Ju Chen, Sung-Pei Yang, Chao-Ming Huang, Ping-Sheng Huang
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: closed-loop controller design, high voltage gain DC–DC converter, three-winding coupled inductor, zero-current switching
In this article, a new non-isolated interleaved DC−DC converter is proposed to provide a high voltage conversion ratio in renewable energy systems. The converter configuration is composed of a two-phase interleaved boost converter integrating a voltage-lift capacitor and three-winding coupled inductor-based voltage multiplier modules to achieve high step-up voltage conversion and reduce voltage stresses on the semiconductors (switches and diodes). The converter can achieve a high voltage conversion ratio when working at a proper duty ratio. The voltage stresses on the switches are significantly lower than the output voltage, which enables engineers to adopt low-voltage-rating MOSFETs with low on-state resistance. The switches can turn on under zero-current switching (ZCS) conditions because of the leakage inductor series reducing switching losses. Some diodes can naturally turn off under ZCS conditions to alleviate the reverse−recovery issue and to reduce reverse−recovery losses. The i... [more]
Renewable Energy Potential and CO2 Performance of Main Biomasses Used in Brazil
Elem Patricia Rocha Alves, Orlando Salcedo-Puerto, Jesús Nuncira, Samuel Emebu, Clara Mendoza-Martinez
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Biofuels, Biomass, Carbon Dioxide, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, thermochemical conversion
This review investigates the effects of the Brazilian agriculture production and forestry sector on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Residual biomasses produced mainly in the agro-industrial and forestry sector as well as fast-growing plants were studied. Possibilities to minimize source-related emissions by sequestering part of carbon in soil and by producing biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel were extensively investigated. The lack of consistency among literature reports on residual biomass makes it difficult to compare CO2 emission reductions between studies and sectors. Data on chemical composition, heating value, proximate and ultimate analysis of the biomasses were collected. Then, the carbon sequestration potential of the biomasses as well as their usability in renewable energy practices were studied. Over 779.6 million tons of agricultural residues were generated in Brazil between 2021 and 2022. This implies a 12.1 million PJ energy potential, while 4.95 million tons of for... [more]
Economic Dispatch Optimization of a Microgrid with Wind−Photovoltaic-Load-Storage in Multiple Scenarios
Haipeng Wang, Xuewei Wu, Kai Sun, Xiaodong Du, Yuling He, Kaiwen Li
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: economic power dispatching, microgrid, multi-scenario, wind–photovoltaic-load storage
The optimal economic power dispatching of a microgrid is an important part of the new power system optimization, which is of great significance to reduce energy consumption and environmental pollution. The microgrid should not only meet the basic demand of power supply but also improve the economic benefit. Considering the generation cost, the discharge cost, the power purchase cost, the electricity sales revenue, the battery charging and discharging power constraints, and the charging and discharging time constraints, a joint optimization model for a multi-scenario microgrid with wind−photovoltaic-load storage is proposed in our study. Additionally, the corresponding model solving algorithm based on particle swarm optimization is also given. In addition, taking the Wangjiazhai project in Baiyangdian region as a case study, the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm is verified. The joint optimization model for a microgrid with wind−photovoltaic-load storage in multiple scen... [more]
Innovative Approaches to Solar Desalination: A Comprehensive Review of Recent Research
Ahmed E. Abu El-Maaty, Mohamed M. Awad, Gamal I. Sultan, Ahmed M. Hamed
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: desalination, direct, fog, HDH, indirect, solar, solar still
Solar desalination systems are a promising solution to the water scarcity problem since the majority of the earth’s water resources are salty. With the increasing focus on desalination research, many innovative methods are being developed to extract salts from saline water. Energy consumption is a significant concern in desalination, and renewable energy, particularly solar energy, is considered a viable alternative to fossil fuel energy. In this review, we will focus on direct and indirect solar desalination methods, specifically traditional direct solar desalination methods such as solar still and humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination systems. We will also briefly discuss a recent advancement in the desalination method known as the fogging process, which is a development of the HDH desalination system.
The Effect of an Electric Field on the Sliding Friction of the Silicone Rubber against Selected Metals in Motor Base Oils
Marek Głogowski, Daniel Smykowski, Sławomir Pietrowicz
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: DC electric field, friction coefficient, molecular models, pin-on-disc
The effects of applying external electric fields on the coefficient of friction of a selected elastomer during mechanical interaction with steel and copper surface oil (counter samples) immersed in a pin-on-disc setup were studied and investigated. The synthetic base oils used were PAG 68 and PAO 6. The elastomer selected for the study is commonly used in the manufacture of rotary lip seals. During the investigations, the viscosity of the oils tested was also experimentally determined in the temperature range of between 286 K and 393 K. It was found that the external electric field had a significant effect on the friction coefficient, depending on the type of base oil, the angular velocity of the load force, and the counterpart. It was observed that for both oils tested, the coefficient of friction values decreased by about 30% when an external DC electric field was applied. In addition, a simple numerical model of the friction interface was proposed and studied. The experimental resul... [more]
Power Distribution System Outage Management Using Improved Resilience Metrics for Smart Grid Applications
Arif Fikri Malek, Hazlie Mokhlis, Nurulafiqah Nadzirah Mansor, Jasrul Jamani Jamian, Li Wang, Munir Azam Muhammad
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: distribution systems, mobile emergency generators, network reconfiguration, resilience metrics, smart grid
Smart grid systems play a significant role in improving the resilience of distribution systems (DSs). In this paper, two strategies are proposed for implementation of a smart grid application: (a) a network reconfiguration and (b) a network reconfiguration with mobile emergency generator (MEGs) deployment. An improved set of resilience metrics to quantify and enhance the resiliency of distribution systems (DSs) is developed for the proposed optimization. The metrics aim to determine a suitable strategy and the optimal number and capacity of MEGs to restore the disconnected loads through the development of several microgrids. These metrics are then aggregated with the proposed strategy to develop an automated solution provider. The objective is to maximize system resilience considering the priority loads. The proposed resilience metrics are tested on the IEEE 33-Bus radial DSs. The case studies conducted proved the performance of the proposed power outage management strategy and resilie... [more]
Model-Based Performance Optimization of Thermal Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Jiaming Zhang, Fuwu Yan, Changqing Du, Wenhao Li, Hongzhang Fang, Jun Shen
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: nanofluid, PEMFC, radiator parameters, thermal management system
As a promising new power source, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has attracted extensive attention. The PEMFC engine produces a large amount of waste heat during operation. The excessive temperature will reduce the efficiency and lifespan of PEMFC engine and even cause irreversible damage if not taken away in time. The thermal management system of the PEMFC plays a critical role in efficiency optimization, longevity and operational safety. To solve the problem of high heat production in the operation of the PEMFC, two approaches are proposed to improve the heat dissipation performance of the radiators in thermal management systems. Three kinds of nanofluids with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity−Al2O3, SiO2 and ZnO− are employed as the cooling medium. The radiator parameters are optimized to improve the heat transfer capability. A typical 1D thermal management system and an isotropic 3D porous medium model replacing the wavy fin are constructed to reveal the... [more]
Energy Management Strategies of Grid-Connected Microgrids under Different Reliability Conditions
Mohammed Abdullah H. Alshehri, Youguang Guo, Gang Lei
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Algorithms, battery storage, energy management, microgrid, reliability, solar
The demand for a reliable, cheap and environmentally friendly source of energy makes the integration of renewable energy into power networks a global challenge. Furthermore, reliability, as one of the core elements of efficient and cost-effective energy management options, is still among the dominant factors/techniques that receive more attention for realistic penetrations of renewable energy into the electricity grid. This paper proposes an efficient way of energy management for a grid-connected microgrid. The grid-connected microgrid used in the analysis consists of solar photovoltaic (P.V.) and battery. In this microgrid configuration, oftentimes, the output power might not be equal to the system demand; in this regard, it is expected that the mismatch between these output powers is not zero. However, to reduce the mismatch between demand and supply to be close to zero, this paper proposes strategies of increasing the rated power of solar, battery and grid separately and combining t... [more]
Potential of Pine Needle Biomass for Bioethanol Production
Aleksandra Wawro, Jakub Jakubowski, Weronika Gieparda, Zenon Pilarek, Agnieszka Łacka
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Ethanol, ethanol yield, lignocellulosic biomass, logging residues management, soil preparation
Currently, fossil fuels are used to produce fuels and electricity, which are finite sources and have a negative impact on the natural environment. An excellent alternative to these fuels is biofuels, such as bioethanol from waste forest biomass. Pine needles are one of the most important available forest biomass materials with s significant impact on local understory vegetation. Forest waste biomass, which is a rich source of lignocellulose, can be used in various ways, such as for the eco-economical production of bioethanol. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities of bioethanol production from pine needle biomass obtained from forest land following different soil preparations and logging residue management. The pine needle dry matter yield, chemical components of pine needle biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), and the amount of ethanol yield per hectare were evaluated. The highest average yield pine needle equal to 6.17 Mg∙ha−1 was observed. Bioethanol yield per... [more]
Design of an Experimental Approach for Characterization and Performance Analysis of High-Frequency Transformer Core Materials
Daniel van Niekerk, Brydon Schoombie, Pitshou Bokoro
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: characterization jig, efficiency performance, half-bridge converter, high-frequency transformer core material, nanocrystalline, polycrystalline, switching frequency
High-frequency transformer core materials are used in power converter applications due to high efficiency performance. Their volume and weight can be reduced when higher operating frequencies are used but at the expense of an increase in core material losses. Some studies analyzed transformer core material performance by using finite element method (FEM) analysis, while others used an experimental model. This study proposes an experimental approach to compare the high-frequency transformer efficiency performance of different core material types. In this way, newly produced core material performance can be rapidly analyzed by comparing it against a known core material type, thereby resulting in the fast identification of improved core material design. This empirical approach makes use of a standard half-bridge inverter topology to enable an analysis of high-frequency transformer core material efficiency performance. Actual voltage and current measurements are used to determine the effic... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of Thermochemical Conversion of Waste Masks Generated in the EU during COVID-19 Pandemic into Energy Products
Samy Yousef, Vidas Lekavičius, Nerijus Striūgas
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: gasification, internal rate of return, pyrolysis, surgical mask waste, Technoeconomic Analysis
During the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 24 billion pieces of surgical mask waste (WM) were generated in the EU region, with an acute shortage of their management and recycling. Pyrolysis and gasification are among the most promising treatments that were proposed to dispose of WMs and convert them into pyrolysis oil and hydrogen-rich syngas. This work aimed to investigate the techno-economic analysis (TEA) of both treatments in order to assess the feasibility of scaling up. The TEA was carried out using a discounted cash flow model and its data were collected from practical experiments conducted using a fluidised bed pyrolysis reactor and bubbling fluidised bed gasifier system with a capacity of 0.2 kg/h and 1 kg/h, respectively, then upscaling to one tonne/h. The technological evaluation was made based on the optimal conditions that could produce the maximum amount of pyrolysis oil (42.3%) and hydrogen-rich syngas (89.7%). These treatments were also compared to the incineration of WMs... [more]
Evaluation of an Energy Separation Device for the Efficiency Improvement of a Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System with an External Reformer
Jinwon Yun, Eun-Jung Choi, Sangmin Lee, Younghyeon Kim, Sangseok Yu
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: CHP efficiency, electric efficiency, energy separation device, solid oxide fuel cell
Due to the high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), the system efficiency depends on efficient thermal integration and the effective construction of system configuration. In this study, nine configurations of system integration design were investigated to evaluate the possible improvement of system efficiency with energy separation devices. The models were developed under the Matlab/Simulink® platform with Thermolib® module. The reference layout of the simulation included an SOFC stack, a compressor, an external reformer with a burner, a three-way valve, a heat exchanger, and a water pump. From the reference case, eight cases extended layouts for the capability of thermal energy utilization with a catalytic converter, SOFC hybridization, and an energy separation device. Since the energy separation device was beneficial to thermal energy utilization via a boost to the gas temperature, electric efficiency, and combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency was improved with... [more]
Review on Modeling and Control Strategies of DC−DC LLC Converters for Bidirectional Electric Vehicle Charger Applications
Houssein Al Attar, Mohamed Assaad Hamida, Malek Ghanes, Miassa Taleb
May 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: DC–DC LLC converter, electric vehicle charger, Phase-Shift Modulation, Pulse Frequency Modulation, small signal modeling, V2X mode
Bidirectional DC−DC converters are frequently chosen for applications requiring high power density such as in bidirectional electric vehicle (EV) chargers. Vehicle to Everything (V2X) technology makes the EV battery an electrical energy source. In this article, the use of a DC−DC LLC converter used in a bidirectional EV charger is reviewed. Different modeling approaches of the DC−DC LLC converter, such as small and large signal modeling, are discussed. Common modulation strategies applied to the DC−DC LLC converter in V2X mode, such as Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Phase-Shift Modulation (PSM), are presented. The new challenge is to present the main characteristics and limitations of each modulation strategy in order to cover the whole operating zone of the EV charger in V2X mode. Furthermore, different control strategies based on a small or large signal model combined with different modulation strategies are highlighted. Linear and nonlinear contro... [more]
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