LAPSE:2023.35857
Published Article
LAPSE:2023.35857
Review on Greenhouse Gases Emission in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Countries
Meiri Triani, Handrea Bernando Tambunan, Kania Dewi, Addina Shafiyya Ediansjah
May 24, 2023
The Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region is a critical contributor to global development from an environmental perspective. This study has reviewed carbon emissions from energy generation, influence factors from the population, economic growth and renewable energy, emission and energy intensity projection, spatial distribution characteristics, and decarbonization strategy. This work utilizes a comparison methodology between ASEAN countries in the emission intensity and energy intensity in the future projection of electricity conditions in 2030 or 2040, as well as opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as determined by the national policies of each government. The results show that Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia produce 79.7% of the electricity in the ASEAN region. As a developing country, Indonesia has the largest population and gross domestic product (GDP) but has the highest predicted emission intensity, of 0.97 CO2e/MWh, in 2030. Vietnam is predicted to have an emission intensity of about 3.56t-CO2e/cap and 0.747t-CO2e/GDP in 2030. Vietnam is expected to increase in energy intensity to 1241 MWh/GDP, while Brunei Darussalam has a high energy intensity of 11.35 MWh/cap. However, the capacity of solar power plants (more than 11 GW) and wind-power plants (2384 MW) have generally increased in ASEAN from 2015 to 2019, indicating the positive development of renewable energy source (RES) use. The national policies strongly influence the estimated GHG emission in ASEAN by aggressively replacing fossil fuels with RESs. Support, via government policies, can reduce the cost of electricity generation from RESs is needed to increase and enhance the installment of clean power generation systems. In future work, the research needs to consider the intermittent characteristics of variable RES in power system operation.
Keywords
ASEAN member states, electricity, emission, greenhouse gases
Suggested Citation
Triani M, Tambunan HB, Dewi K, Ediansjah AS. Review on Greenhouse Gases Emission in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Countries. (2023). LAPSE:2023.35857
Author Affiliations
Triani M: PT. PLN (Persero) Puslitbang Ketenagalistrikan (Research Institute), Jakarta 12760, Indonesia [ORCID]
Tambunan HB: PT. PLN (Persero) Puslitbang Ketenagalistrikan (Research Institute), Jakarta 12760, Indonesia [ORCID]
Dewi K: Study Program of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40134, Indonesia
Ediansjah AS: Study Program of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40134, Indonesia
Journal Name
Energies
Volume
16
Issue
9
First Page
3920
Year
2023
Publication Date
2023-05-06
Published Version
ISSN
1996-1073
Version Comments
Original Submission
Other Meta
PII: en16093920, Publication Type: Review
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Published Article

LAPSE:2023.35857
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doi:10.3390/en16093920
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May 24, 2023
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CC BY 4.0
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[v1] (Original Submission)
May 24, 2023
 
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May 24, 2023
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Original Submitter
Calvin Tsay
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