LAPSE:2023.26175
Published Article
LAPSE:2023.26175
Degradation Mechanism Due to Water Ingress Effect on the Top Contact of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells
Deewakar Poudel, Shankar Karki, Benjamin Belfore, Grace Rajan, Sushma Swaraj Atluri, Sina Soltanmohammad, Angus Rockett, Sylvain Marsillac
March 31, 2023
The impact of moisture ingress on the surface of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells was studied. While industry-scale modules are encapsulated in specialized polymers and glass, over time, the glass can break and the encapsulant can degrade. During such conditions, water can potentially degrade the interior layers and decrease performance. The first layer the water will come in contact with is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer. To simulate the impact of this moisture ingress, complete devices were immersed in deionized water. To identify the potential sources of degradation, a common window layer for CIGS devices—a bilayer of intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO) and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO)—was deposited. The thin films were then analyzed both pre and post water soaking. To determine the extent of ingress, dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was performed on completed devices to analyze impurity diffusion (predominantly sodium and potassium) in the devices. The results were compared to device measurements, and indicated a degradation of device efficiency (mostly fill factor, contrary to previous studies), potentially due to a modification of the alkali profile.
Keywords
alkali, CIGS, corrosion, ITO
Suggested Citation
Poudel D, Karki S, Belfore B, Rajan G, Atluri SS, Soltanmohammad S, Rockett A, Marsillac S. Degradation Mechanism Due to Water Ingress Effect on the Top Contact of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells. (2023). LAPSE:2023.26175
Author Affiliations
Poudel D: Virginia Institute of Photovoltaics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA [ORCID]
Karki S: Virginia Institute of Photovoltaics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
Belfore B: Virginia Institute of Photovoltaics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
Rajan G: Virginia Institute of Photovoltaics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
Atluri SS: Virginia Institute of Photovoltaics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
Soltanmohammad S: Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
Rockett A: Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA [ORCID]
Marsillac S: Virginia Institute of Photovoltaics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA [ORCID]
Journal Name
Energies
Volume
13
Issue
17
Article Number
E4545
Year
2020
Publication Date
2020-09-02
Published Version
ISSN
1996-1073
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Original Submission
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PII: en13174545, Publication Type: Journal Article
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LAPSE:2023.26175
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doi:10.3390/en13174545
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Mar 31, 2023
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