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Records with Subject: Energy Policy
Showing records 1156 to 1180 of 1181. [First] Page: 1 44 45 46 47 48 49 Last
Technical, Economical and Social Assessment of Photovoltaics in the Frame of the Net-Metering Law for the Province of Salta, Argentina
Luis Ramirez Camargo, Judith Franco, Nilsa María Sarmiento Babieri, Silvina Belmonte, Karina Escalante, Raphaela Pagany, Wolfgang Dorner
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: net-metering, participatory consultation, photovoltaics, reanalysis data, social perception, techno-economical assessment
Central and Northern Argentinean regions possess a high potential for the generation of solar energy. The realization of this potential is an alternative to alleviate the strong dependence on imports of fossil energy and to reduce the CO₂ emissions of the country. However, the adoption of photovoltaics (PV) is still in an incipient state. It is undermined by a context of heavily subsidized electricity prices, high equipment and installation costs and a lack of information, training and experience in handling PV technology. This paper presents a techno-economical assessment of the application of the recently enacted net-metering law for promoting renewable energies (RE) in the Province of Salta (Northwest Argentina) for the case of PV. The assessment shows under which conditions and for which types of consumers it is profitable to adopt PV in the context of the law. This analysis is supported by a participatory planning approach as a study of stakeholders’ attitudes towards RE, intentio... [more]
New Aspects to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies for Low Carbon Cities
George Dalianis, Evanthia Nanaki, George Xydis, Efthimios Zervas
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: air pollution, climate change, low carbon cities, methane emissions
Methane (CH₄) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. This study provides estimates of emissions of this important and often not well characterized greenhouse gas (GHG) emission related to transportation energy use. It aims to assist urban community planners and policymakers to prioritize and choose implementation strategies for low carbon cities. The paper focuses on emissions of CH₄ from vehicles. Unlike emissions of CO₂, which are relatively easy to estimate, emissions of CH₄ are a function of many complex aspects of combustion dynamics and depend on the type of emission control systems used. In this context, they cannot be derived easily and instead must be determined through the use of published emission factors for each combination of fuel, end-use technology, combustion conditions, and emission control systems. Emissions of CH₄ play a significant role with regards to the relative CO₂⁻equivalent GHG emissions of the use of alternative transportation fuels, in comparis... [more]
Public Engagement in Energy Research
Jako Jellema, Henk A. J. Mulder
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: citizen science, corporate social responsibility, energy research and development, energy transition, Horizon 2020, innovation (RRI), public engagement in research, responsible research &, science shops
Public Engagement in Research is a key element in “Responsible Research and Innovation”; a cross-cutting issue in current European research funding. Public engagement can advance energy R&D, by delivering results that are more in-line with society’s views and demands; and collaboration also unlocks societal skills and knowledge. This paper structures the ways to look at engagement, and gives some pointers on how to implement it in energy R&D, with various levels of intensity. The publics to engage with can be citizens, future users, affected persons, but also organisations that represent them. We have selected methods and tools that showcase a broad range of types of engagement that have been applied in The Netherlands or the UK. The cases are grouped based on the role of the researcher in the engagement process. These roles relate to discussing with, consulting, involving, collaborating with and supporting the various publics. This study shows that there is a diversity of tool... [more]
On Variable Reverse Power Flow-Part I: Active-Reactive Optimal Power Flow with Reactive Power of Wind Stations
Aouss Gabash, Pu Li
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: active-reactive energy losses, variable reverse power flow, varying power factors (PFs), wind power
It has recently been shown that using battery storage systems (BSSs) to provide reactive power provision in a medium-voltage (MV) active distribution network (ADN) with embedded wind stations (WSs) can lead to a huge amount of reverse power to an upstream transmission network (TN). However, unity power factors (PFs) of WSs were assumed in those studies to analyze the potential of BSSs. Therefore, in this paper (Part-I), we aim to further explore the pure reactive power potential of WSs (i.e., without BSSs) by investigating the issue of variable reverse power flow under different limits on PFs in an electricity market model. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows: (1) Introducing the reactive power capability of WSs in the optimization model of the active-reactive optimal power flow (A-R-OPF) and highlighting the benefits/impacts under different limits on PFs. (2) Investigating the impacts of different agreements for variable reverse power flow on the operation of... [more]
Assessment of feasibility and benefits of replacing bioethanol with biobutanol in the transportation fuels industry
Merissa Wiebe, Thomas Alan Adams II
November 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Biobutanol, Butanol, Ethanol, Transportation Fuels
In recent years there has been a strong drive towards transitioning the transportation fuels market to a sustainable alternative. Biofuels has emerged as one of the solutions and is receiving a great deal of focus in research, industry, and politics. Ethanol is currently the most popular biofuel, but butanol has been acknowledged as a superior alternative in several regards. In this paper, the chemical and physical properties of butanol are compared to ethanol and gasoline. In addition, the feasibility of a butanol-based economy is assessed in terms of available supply, compatibility in spark ignition engines in terms of performance and emissions, and ability to easily transport, store, and dispense the fuel. Life cycle assessments of biobutanol are also reviewed, which ultimately suggest that butanol has the potential to be a sustainable alternative. However, the yield of biobutanol production via ABE fermentation, the primary process currently utilized to produce the fuel, is low. Ad... [more]
Environmental Analysis of Petrol, Diesel and Electric Passenger Cars in a Belgian Urban Setting
Nils Hooftman, Luis Oliveira, Maarten Messagie, Thierry Coosemans, Joeri Van Mierlo
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: electric vehicle, emissions, life cycle assessment, non-exhaust, urban
The combustion of fossil fuels in the transport sector leads to an aggravation of the air quality along city roads and highways. Urban air quality is a serious problem nowadays as the number of vehicles increases on a yearly basis. With stricter Euro emission regulations, vehicle manufacturers are not meeting the imposed limits and are also disregarding the non-exhaust emissions. This paper highlights the relevance of non-exhaust emissions of passenger vehicles, both conventional (diesel and petrol) or electric vehicles (EV), on air quality levels in an urban environment in Belgium. An environmental life cycle assessment was carried out based on a real-world emission model for passenger cars and fuel refinery data. A cut-off was applied to the models to highlight what emissions, both from the refinery to the exhaust and electricity production for EV, do actually occur within Belgium’s borders. Results show that not much progress has been made from Euro 4 to 6 for conventional vehicles.... [more]
Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges
Angel Alejandro Juan, Carlos Alberto Mendez, Javier Faulin, Jesica de Armas, Scott Erwin Grasman
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: electric vehicles, green vehicle routing problems, logistics and transportation
Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electric-based vehicles, meaning that investment decisions need to be made about the number, location, and capacity of these stations. Similarly, the limited driving-range capabilities of EVs, which are restricted by the amount of electricity stored in their batteries, impose non-trivial additional constraints when designing efficient distribution routes. Accordingly, this paper identifies and reviews several open research challenges related to the introduction of EVs in L&T activities, inclu... [more]
The Health Costs of Revised Coal Mining Limits in Northern Bohemia
Vojtěch Máca, Jan Melichar
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: airborne pollution, coal mining, coal-fired power plant, external costs, impact-pathway approach
Brown coal has been the major source of energy for more than 150 years for the Czech economy, but its role in the coming decades is nowadays the source of heated debate. Many of the recurring discussions address the coal reserves that were set aside in 1991 in order to halt the massive destruction of the landscape and the unprecedented deterioration of the human environment in Northern Bohemia. We study the proposed variants of the revised mining limits using the impact-pathway approach in order to quantify and monetize the health effects of airborne emissions from coal mining and the use of extracted coal for the production of electricity and heat. We find that the dominant health impacts associated with the revision of the limits, estimated to be up to 7 billion euros over the 2015⁻2050 period, will stem from the use of coal for the production of electricity and heat and that a large part of the impact will be borne by populations outside the Czech Republic.
A Sectoral Micro-Economic Approach to Scenario Selection and Development: The Case of the Greek Power Sector
Alexandros Flamos
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: actor-based modeling and analysis, generation capacity adequacy, policy assessment, power market, scenario development
Generating policy-relevant scenarios is instrumental for understanding and developing policy measures. These are especially relevant to the power sector. Practitioners have been working on policy-relevant scenarios for the ex-ante assessment of policy measures in a meaningful way for end-users related to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This paper presents a method for generating such policy relevant scenarios by focusing on the actor-contingent elements of the scenarios, i.e., the developments that are within the control of system actors to change or bring about. Several scenario techniques focusing on systematic-formalized or quantitative approaches have been published on this front over the past few years. Here, we introduce a methodology that is best suited for the assessment of the expected effect of different policy measures on the involved stakeholders’ behavior as well as for the analysis of the interactions between different policy measures as reflected on... [more]
Economic Viability Study of an On-Road Wireless Charging System with a Generic Driving Range Estimation Method
Aditya Shekhar, Venugopal Prasanth, Pavol Bauer, Mark Bolech
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: analysis, charging, contactless, cost, driving range, dynamic, economic, electric vehicle (EV), emissions, extension, inductive power transfer (IPT), static, viability, wireless
The economic viability of on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs) strongly depends on the choice of the inductive power transfer (IPT) system configuration (static or dynamic charging), charging power level and the percentage of road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case study is carried out to determine the expected investment costs involved in installing the on-road charging infrastructure for an electric bus fleet. Firstly, a generic methodology is described to determine the driving range of any EV (including electric buses) with any gross mass and frontal area. A dynamic power consumption model is developed for the EV, taking into account the rolling friction, acceleration, deceleration, aerodynamic drag, regenerative braking and Li-ion battery behavior. Based on the simulation results, the linear dependence of the battery state of charge (SoC) on the distance traveled is proven. Further, the impact of different IPT system parameters on driving range is i... [more]
Visualization of International Energy Policy Research
Xiaoling Wang, Jatin Nathwani, Chunyou Wu
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy policies, historical perspective, literature metrology, research evolutionary path, visualization analysis
The complexity of policy decision making is well recognized. It is not clear, however, what role academic policy research has played in influencing the directions of policy outcomes and how the research has intertwined with notable issues globally. Given the importance of energy choices on sustainable development, we have developed a comprehensive and powerful visualization of the research trends worldwide in energy policy studies over the past five decades using the literature metrology theory and its techniques. The analytical framework provides a visual tracking of research activity, directional flow and a robust basis for judging progress. The emergent findings are an aid to decision makers drawing insights from specific policy studies within a fully transparent view of the historical context on a global scale.
Erratum: Ellegård, K. and Palm, J. Who Is Behaving? Consequences for Energy Policy of Concept Confusion. Energies 2015, 8, 7618⁻7637
Energies Editorial Office
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
We wish to make the following correction to the published paper [1]. [...]
Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery
Pan-Sang Kang, Jong-Se Lim, Chun Huh
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, EOR screening, offshore
The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO₂ miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes compri... [more]
What Do Capacity Deployment Rates Tell Us about the Efficiency of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources Support Measures in Greece?
Sotiris Papadelis, Vasssilis Stavrakas, Alexandros Flamos
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: energy policy assessment, energy policy efficiency, feed-in tariffs (FITs), renewable energy sources (RES) support
The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback effects. These negative effects may stem from saturation of the grid’s ability to absorb an increased amount of RES-E power, the inability of regulatory bodies to cope with the larger workload due to the increased number of projects requesting permits or from rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the primary rationale for feed-in tariffs (FITs) and other fiscal support schemes is that increased deployment of RES-E technologies will lead to reductions in costs and increases in efficiency. As a result, the efficiency of an RES-E support policy should be also judged by its ability to capitalize on cost reductions. Overall, we present an approach to facilitate ongoing assessments of the efficiency of sup... [more]
Assessing the Environmental Sustainability of Electricity Generation in Turkey on a Life Cycle Basis
Burcin Atilgan, Adisa Azapagic
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: electricity generation, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, Turkey
Turkey’s electricity mix is dominated by fossil fuels, but the country has ambitious future targets for renewable and nuclear energy. At present, environmental impacts of electricity generation in Turkey are unknown so this paper represents a first attempt to fill this knowledge gap. Taking a life cycle approach, the study considers eleven impacts from electricity generation over the period 1990⁻2014. All 516 power plants currently operational in Turkey are assessed: lignite, hard coal, natural gas, hydro, onshore wind and geothermal. The results show that the annual impacts from electricity have been going up steadily over the period, increasing by 2⁻9 times, with the global warming potential being higher by a factor of five. This is due to a four-fold increase in electricity demand and a growing share of fossil fuels. The impact trends per unit of electricity generated differ from those for the annual impacts, with only four impacts being higher today than in 1990, including the glob... [more]
Direct and Indirect Impacts of Vegetation on Building Comfort: A Comparative Study of Lawns, Green Walls and Green Roofs
Laurent Malys, Marjorie Musy, Christian Inard
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: adaptive comfort, building simulation, lawn, SOLENE-microclimat, urban climate
Following development and validation of the SOLENE-microclimat tool, the underlying model was used to compare the impacts of various “greening strategies” on buildings’ summer energy consumption and indoor comfort. This study distinguishes between direct and indirect impacts by successively implementing the test strategies on both the studied building and surrounding ones; it also considers insulated vs. non-insulated buildings. Findings indicate that green walls have a direct effect on indoor comfort throughout the entire building, whereas the effect of green roofs is apparently primarily confined to the upper floor. Moreover, the indirect effect of a green wall is greater, mainly due to the drop in infrared emissions resulting from a lower surface temperature. It has also been proven that the indirect effects of green walls and surrounding lawns can help reduce the loads acting on a non-insulated building.
Decomposing Industrial Energy-Related CO₂ Emissions in Yunnan Province, China: Switching to Low-Carbon Economic Growth
Mingxiang Deng, Wei Li, Yan Hu
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: CO2 emissions, drivers, less-developed regions, low-carbon pilot, structural decomposition analysis, Yunnan province
As a less-developed province that has been chosen to be part of a low-carbon pilot project, Yunnan faces the challenge of maintaining rapid economic growth while reducing CO₂ emissions. Understanding the drivers behind CO₂ emission changes can help decouple economic growth from CO₂ emissions. However, previous studies on the drivers of CO₂ emissions in less-developed regions that focus on both production and final demand have been seldom conducted. In this study, a structural decomposition analysis-logarithmic mean Divisia index (SDA-LMDI) model was developed to find the drivers behind the CO₂ emission changes during 1997⁻2012 in Yunnan, based on times series energy consumption and input-output data. The results demonstrated that the sharp rise in exports of high-carbon products from the metal processing and electricity sectors increased CO₂ emissions, during 2002⁻2007. Although increased investments in the construction sector also increased CO₂ emissions, during 2007⁻2012, the carbon... [more]
Building Integrated Photovoltaics: A Concise Description of the Current State of the Art and Possible Research Pathways
Bjørn Petter Jelle
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), research pathway, review, solar cell, state-of-the-art
Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) offer an aesthetical, economical and technical solution to integrate solar cells harvesting solar radiation to produce electricity within the climate envelopes of buildings. Photovoltaic (PV) cells may be mounted above or onto the existing or traditional roofing or wall systems. However, BIPV systems replace the outer building envelope skin, i.e., the climate screen, hence serving simultanously as both a climate screen and a power source generating electricity. Thus, BIPV may provide savings in materials and labor, in addition to reducing the electricity costs. Hence, for the BIPV products, in addition to specific requirements put on the solar cell technology, it is of major importance to have satisfactory or strict requirements of rain tightness and durability, where building physical issues like e.g., heat and moisture transport in the building envelope also have to be considered and accounted for. This work, from both a technological and scie... [more]
Optimal Allocation of Thermal-Electric Decoupling Systems Based on the National Economy by an Improved Conjugate Gradient Method
Shuang Rong, Weixing Li, Zhimin Li, Yong Sun, Taiyi Zheng
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: combine heat and power, improved parallel conjugate gradient, thermal-electric decoupling, wind power curtailment
Aiming to relieve the large amount of wind power curtailment during the heating period in the North China region, a thermal-electric decoupling (TED) approach is proposed to both bring down the constraint of forced power output of combined heat and power plants and increase the electric load level during valley load times that assist the power grid in consuming more wind power. The operating principles of the thermal-electric decoupling approach is described, the mathematical model of its profits is developed, the constraint conditions of its operation are listed, also, an improved parallel conjugate gradient is utilized to bypass the saddle problem and accelerate the optimal speed. Numerical simulations are implemented and reveal an optimal allocation of TED which with a rated power of 280 MW and 185 MWh heat storage capacity are possible. This allocation of TED could bring approximately 16.9 billion Yuan of economic profit and consume more than 80% of the surplus wind energy which wo... [more]
Reconfiguration of Urban Photovoltaic Arrays Using Commercial Devices
Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garcés, Juan David Bastidas-Rodríguez, Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: embedded systems, hardware in the loop, mismatching conditions, optimal configuration, partial shading, reconfiguration, series-parallel arrays
A recent approach to mitigate the adverse effects of photovoltaic (PV) arrays operating under mismatching conditions is the dynamic electrical reconfiguration of the PV panels. This paper introduces a procedure to determine the best configuration of a PV array connected in a series-parallel structure without using complex mathematical models. Such a procedure uses the experimental current vs. voltage curves of the PV panels, which are composed of multiple PV modules, to construct the power vs. voltage curves of all of the possible configurations to identify the optimal one. The main advantage of this method is the low computational effort required to reconstruct the power vs. voltage curves of the array. This characteristic enables one to implement the proposed solution using inexpensive embedded devices, which are widely adopted in industrial applications. The proposed method, and its embedded implementation, were tested using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the PV system. Finall... [more]
The Effect of Wind Power Installations on Coastal Tourism
Meredith Blaydes Lilley, Jeremy Firestone, Willett Kempton
October 17, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: beach, contingent behavior, offshore, tourism, wind power
We surveyed more than 1,000 randomly sampled, out-of-state tourists at Delaware, USA beaches in 2007. After providing respondents with wind turbine project photo-simulations at several distances, we inquired about the effect development would have on visitation. Approximately one-quarter stated that they would switch beaches if an offshore wind project was located 10 km from the coast, with avoidance diminishing with greater distance from shore. Stated avoidance is less than: avoidance with a fossil fuel power plant located the same distance inland; attraction to a beach with offshore wind turbines; and the percentage stating they would likely pay to take a boat tour.
What You Should Know About Carbon Markets
Maria Mansanet-Bataller, Ángel Pardo
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Carbon Markets, Emission Trading, European Union Allowances
Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has been in continuous expansion. In this paper, we review the origins of carbon trading in order to understand how carbon trading works in Europe and, specifically, the functioning of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and the workings of several spot, futures and options markets where European Union Allowances are traded. As well, the linking of the EU ETS with the other United Nations carbon markets is also studied.
Opportunities for a Bio-based Economy in the Netherlands
Johan Sanders, Diederik Van der Hoeven
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agriculture, Biobased economy, Biomass, chemical industry, logistics, policy
The shift to a bio-based economy for the Netherlands is not only required because of climate change, but also for industrial strategy reasons. Traditional strongholds of the Dutch economy like the Rotterdam harbour, the agricultural sector (including the greenhouse sector, and food and feed industries) and the petrochemical industry will be affected by the new economic realities, and it is precisely to these sectors that a bio-based economy will offer new opportunities.
Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources
David Pimentel, Alison Marklein, Megan A. Toth, Marissa Karpoff, Gillian S. Paul, Robert McCormack, Joanna Kyriazis, Tim Krueger
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: agriculture, Biofuels, Energy, food security, fossil fuels, natural resources, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%.
Energies and Policies
Edwin Kessler
October 15, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
The International Energy Agency, headquartered in Paris, was founded in the early 1970s and is an energy policy advisor to 27 countries.[...]
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