Records with Keyword: Alternative Fuels
Showing records 17 to 41 of 41. [First] Page: 1 2 Last
Reduction in Operating Costs and Environmental Impact Consisting in the Modernization of the Low-Power Cylindrical Wood Chipper Power Unit by Using Alternative Fuel
Łukasz Warguła, Mateusz Kukla, Piotr Krawiec, Bartosz Wieczorek
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, fuel consumption, LPG, mass flow rate, non-road small engine, volumetric flow rate, wood chipper
Alternative fuel within the meaning of Directive 2014/94/EU is, among others, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), characterized by a lower purchase cost and lower emissions of toxic exhaust compounds in comparison to the combustion of classic gasoline. In wood chippers, intended for chopping branches, with low-power internal combustion engines that meet the emission standards in force in 2019 in the European Union, in accordance with Regulation 2016/1628/EU, carburetor fuel supply systems are commonly used. Innovative trends in the development of these drives are: electronic fuel injection, systems supporting the adaptation of the working elements to the conditions of use and the use of alternative fuels. The first two solutions significantly affect the cost of purchasing a power unit or modernizing it. The authors of this article indicate, as a beneficial alternative, a cheap (EUR 105) possibility of modernizing the carburetor fuel supply system. It is based on a modification that will all... [more]
Research and Prospects for the Development of Alternative Fuels in the Transport Sector in Poland: A Review
Dorota Burchart-Korol, Magdalena Gazda-Grzywacz, Katarzyna Zarębska
March 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, development of alternative fuels in Poland, electromobility, transport sector
The aim of this publication is to review the current state and possibilities of developing electromobility and alternative fuels in Poland. It was found that the current market for alternative fuels in Poland is insufficiently developed. At the end of 2019 in Poland, liquefied petroleum gas-powered cars accounted for approximately 3.3 million pieces, which amounts to 14.3% all passenger vehicles up to 3.5 tonnes of gross vehicle weight. There were over 9000 electric cars on the road, the share of which accounted for 0.04% of domestic passenger transport. The lack of a sufficient number of charging points, inhibiting the development of electromobility, was also noted. There were approximately 4000 (0.02%) passenger cars powered by compressed natural gas. Liquefied gas-powered vehicles were exclusively public transport vehicles or trucks. The share of biofuels in the Polish transport sector stands at 4%, while European Union requirements are at a level of 10%. Although there is huge pote... [more]
Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of the Turbine Engine Fueled with HEFA Blends from Different Feedstocks
Bartosz Gawron, Tomasz Białecki, Anna Janicka, Tomasz Suchocki
March 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, emissions, HEFA process, synthetic blending component, turbine engine
In the next decade, due to the desire for significant reduction in the carbon footprint left by the aviation sector and the development of a sustainable alternatives to petroleum, fuel from renewable sources will play an increasing role as a propellant for turbine aircraft engines. Currently, apart from five types of jet fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons that are certified by the ASTM D7566 standard, there is yet another synthetic blending component that is at the stage of testing and certification. Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids enable the production of a synthetic component for jet fuel from any form of native fat or oil. Used feedstock affects the final synthetic blending component composition and consequently the properties of the blend for jet fuel and, as a result, the operation of turbine engines. A specialized laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine was used for research, which is an interesting alternative to complex and expensive tests with full sca... [more]
Combustion Studies of a Non-Road Diesel Engine with Several Alternative Liquid Fuels
Michaela Hissa, Seppo Niemi, Katriina Sirviö, Antti Niemi, Teemu Ovaska
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, CI engines, combustion duration, heat release rate, in-cylinder combustion
Sustainable liquid fuels will be needed for decades to fulfil the world’s growing energy demands. Combustion systems must be able to operate with a variety of renewable and sustainable fuels. This study focused on how the use of various alternative fuels affects combustion, especially in-cylinder combustion. The study investigated light fuel oil (LFO) and six alternative liquid fuels in a high-speed, compression-ignition (CI) engine to understand their combustion properties. The fuels were LFO (baseline), marine gas oil (MGO), kerosene, rapeseed methyl ester (RME), renewable diesel (HVO), renewable wood-based naphtha and its blend with LFO. The heat release rate (HRR), mass fraction burned (MFB) and combustion duration (CD) were determined at an intermediate speed at three loads. The combustion parameters seemed to be very similar with all studied fuels. The HRR curve was slightly delayed with RME at the highest load. The combustion duration of neat naphtha decreased compared to LFO as... [more]
Assessing the Impacts of Electric Vehicle Recharging Infrastructure Deployment Efforts in the European Union
Christian Thiel, Andreea Julea, Beatriz Acosta Iborra, Nerea De Miguel Echevarria, Emanuela Peduzzi, Enrico Pisoni, Jonatan J. Gómez Vilchez, Jette Krause
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: air pollutants, Alternative Fuels, electric vehicles, electro-mobility, employment effects, greenhouse gas emissions, recharging and refuelling infrastructure, transport
Electric vehicles (EVs) can play an important role in improving the European Union’s (EU)’s energy supply security, reducing the environmental impact of transport, and increasing EU competitiveness. The EU aims at fostering the synchronised deployment of EVs and necessary recharging infrastructure. There is currently a lack of studies in the literature for analysing the societal impacts of EV and infrastructure deployment at continental scale. In our paper, we analyse the likely impact of related plans of the EU member states (MSs). With the help of qualitative and quantitative analyses, we study the impact of plans on recharging infrastructure deployment, contributions to the EU climate and energy goals, air quality objectives, and reinforcement of the EU’s competitiveness and job creation. We soft-link a fleet impact model with a simplified source receptor relationship model, and propose a new model to calculate job impacts. The results overall show modest impacts by 2020, as most me... [more]
Energy Scenario Analysis for the Nordic Transport Sector: A Critical Review
Raffaele Salvucci, Stefan Petrović, Kenneth Karlsson, Markus Wråke, Tanu Priya Uteng, Olexandr Balyk
March 21, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, decarbonization, energy system modelling, low-carbon transition, NETP 2016, sustainable mobility, transport behavior
Experiencing the highest growth in emissions since 1990 and relying mainly on oil, transport is considered the most complicated sector to decarbonize. Lately, the Nordic countries have shown remarkable success in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially in the power and heat sector. However, when it comes to transportation, the greatest source of Nordic GHG emissions, stronger measures are needed. Relying on a rich and diversified portfolio of renewable sources and expertise, the Nordic countries could benefit from a common mitigation strategy by encompassing a larger variety of solutions and potential synergies. This article reviews studies addressing integrated energy and transport scenario analysis for the Nordic region as a whole. The studies targeted are those applying energy system models, given their extensive adoption in supporting scenario analysis. Most notable of these studies is the “Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives 2016” to which a special focus is dedicate... [more]
Definition of the Thermodynamic Cycle of a Biomass-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine
Gonzalo Suanes, David Bolonio, Antonio Cantero
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biomass, combustion engine, thermodynamic cycle
Climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels make it urgent to find an alternative to oil-based fuels, especially in machines powered by internal combustion engines. Biomass is currently a poorly used source of energy and meets the necessary conditions to replace a large part of oil-based fuels. However, current engines cannot burn solid biomass and a specific engine needs to be developed. This work proposes the thermodynamic cycle of a biomass-fueled internal combustion engine. The cycle is significantly different from the Otto cycle, since compression and heat absorption occur simultaneously, in a single stage. Since it is not possible to find a function that relates pressure to volume at this stage, an approximate method is proposed to solve the cycle without resorting to numerical methods. The results show that the maximum pressure and temperature of a biomass-fueled engine cycle are somewhat higher than those of the equivalent Otto cycle. However, more significantly, the cycle... [more]
Influence of RDF Composition on Mercury Release during Thermal Pretreatment
Marcelina Bury, Tadeusz Dziok, Karel Borovec, Piotr Burmistrz
March 20, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, mercury, mercury removal, RDF, thermal pretreatment, waste
The growing world population is contributing to the increasing amounts of waste and a significant increase in energy demand. Therefore, coal will increasingly be replaced by refuse-derived fuel (RDF), which is produced from municipal solid waste. The use of such fuel poses many difficulties because of its heterogeneity and high mercury emission. One method to stabilize the properties of RDF and reduce the mercury content is thermal pretreatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of mercury from RDF samples following thermal pretreatment. The study was carried out in the temperature range of 100−350 °C. Statistical analysis was performed on the correlation between the composition of the RDF samples and the release of mercury. The RDF samples showed a very high variation in the mercury content, ranging from 45 to 849 µg Hg/kg (1.7 to 35.3 µg Hg/MJ). Thermal pretreatment removed a significant amount of mercury at 250 °C (94−99%). Paper content positively affected me... [more]
Thermodynamic Analysis of CNG Fast Filling Process of Composite Cylinder Type IV
Adam Saferna, Piotr Saferna, Szymon Kuczyński, Mariusz Łaciak, Adam Szurlej, Tomasz Włodek
March 10, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, CNG tank, composite cylinder fast filling, composite tank (type IV), energy storage, Compressed Natural Gas
Due to ecological and economic advantages, natural gas is used as an alternative fuel in the transportation sector in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Development of infrastructure is necessary to popularize vehicles that use alternative fuels. Selected positive factors from EU countries supporting the development of the CNG market were discussed. The process of natural gas vehicle (NGV) fast filling is related to thermodynamic phenomena occurring in a tank. In this study, the first law of thermodynamics and continuity equations were applied to develop a theoretical model to investigate the effects of natural gas composition on the filling process and the final in-cylinder conditions of NGV on-board composite cylinder (type IV). Peng−Robinson equation of state (P-R EOS) was applied, and a lightweight composite tank (type IV) was considered as an adiabatic system. The authors have devised a model to determine the influence of natural gas composit... [more]
Effect of Adding Emulsifier to Fuel on Work Efficiency and Gas Turbine Emissions
Paweł Niszczota, Marian Gieras
March 9, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, CO emission, emulsifier, emulsion fuels, gas turbine, NOx emission, surfactant
In an effort to reduce the emissivity of transport and energy, numerous studies are being carried out on the impact of the combustion of alternative fuels on the emission and operating parameters of propulsion and energy units. One of the observed trends is the use of emulsion fuels. The addition of an emulsifier to an emulsion fuel reduces the interfacial tension between two liquids, which allows obtaining an emulsion fuel with the expected stability. The research conducted on self-ignition engines and gas turbines (TG) does not give an unambiguous answer as to the influence of the use of fuel-water emulsion on CO emissions. One of the reasons for the discrepancy in the obtained results may be the type and amount of the emulsifier used in the emulsion fuel. Tests were carried out on the GTM-120 gas turbine to compare the operating parameters and emissions between the cases in which TG was supplied with three fuel mixtures—the standard fuel for TG (DF) and DF with 2% and 5% emulsifier... [more]
Renewable Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines
Sławomir Wierzbicki, Kamil Duda, Maciej Mikulski
March 6, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: additives for alternative fuels, Alternative Fuels, emission characteristics, engine performance, engine thermodynamics, innovative combustion concepts
The continuous need for systematization and open dissemination of knowledge on Renewable Fuels intended for use in Internal Combustion Engines forms the premise of the presented Special Issue titled “Renewable Fuels for Internal Combustion”. Experts in the field were encouraged to share their latest findings in the form of original research papers, case studies, or short reviews. Works targeting all aspects of the value chain were considered necessary, including the following: (liquid and gaseous) fuel production process, upgrading (catalytic and fractional blending), up to end, valorization in combustion engines (conventional and advanced concepts). Finally, techno-economic analyses aiming to valorize the value chain holistically were warmly encouraged to submit papers in this Special Issue of the Energies Journal. In this book, the reader will find successful submissions that present the latest findings from the discussed research field, encapsulated into nine chapters.
A Comparison of Alternative Fuels for Shipping in Terms of Lifecycle Energy and Cost
Li Chin Law, Beatrice Foscoli, Epaminondas Mastorakos, Stephen Evans
March 6, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, ammonia, decarbonization, Hydrogen, marine fuel, maritime, Methanol
Decarbonization of the shipping sector is inevitable and can be made by transitioning into low- or zero-carbon marine fuels. This paper reviews 22 potential pathways, including conventional Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) marine fuel as a reference case, “blue” alternative fuel produced from natural gas, and “green” fuels produced from biomass and solar energy. Carbon capture technology (CCS) is installed for fossil fuels (HFO and liquefied natural gas (LNG)). The pathways are compared in terms of quantifiable parameters including (i) fuel mass, (ii) fuel volume, (iii) life cycle (Well-To-Wake—WTW) energy intensity, (iv) WTW cost, (v) WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and (vi) non-GHG emissions, estimated from the literature and ASPEN HYSYS modelling. From an energy perspective, renewable electricity with battery technology is the most efficient route, albeit still impractical for long-distance shipping due to the low energy density of today’s batteries. The next best is fossil fuels with CCS (a... [more]
Assumptions of the Energy Policy of the Country versus Investment Outlays Related to the Purchase of Alternative Fuels: Poland as a Case Study
Maciej Ciołek, Izabela Emerling, Katarzyna Olejko, Beata Sadowska, Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz
March 2, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, energy policy, investment outlays, mining and coal mining
Nowadays, the importance of activities for the protection of the environment is growing. This approach has a major impact on the current energy and mining policy in Poland. On the one hand, the energy policy has imposed several restrictions to which the Polish economy will have to adapt; on the other, however, it raises great social opposition from professional groups that will be at risk of changing or losing their jobs and income, which implies extensive restructuring processes. These processes involve the decarbonisation of the economy and include, among others: sustainable production and consumption, sustainable municipal management and high quality of life in the city, waste management, sustainable transport, and energy management. The aim of the article is to indicate the importance of investment outlays and costs incurred when purchasing alternative fuels that would replace hard coal in Poland. It is part of the process of adjusting to the requirements of the new energy policy a... [more]
Data-Driven Air-Fuel Path Control Design for Robust RCCI Engine Operation
Jan Verhaegh, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems
March 1, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, combustion engine system control, combustion modelling, data-driven models, dual fuel control, fuel flexibility, model-based control
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a highly efficient and clean combustion concept, which enables the use of a wide range of renewable fuels. Consequently, this promising dual fuel combustion concept is of great interest for realizing climate neutral future transport. RCCI is very sensitive for operating conditions and requires advanced control strategies to guarantee stable and safe operation. For real-world RCCI implementation, we face control challenges related to transients and varying ambient conditions. Currently, a multivariable air−fuel path controller that can guarantee robust RCCI engine operation is lacking. In this work, we present a RCCI engine controller, which combines static decoupling and a diagonal MIMO feedback controller. For control design, a frequency domain-based approach is presented, which explicitly deals with cylinder-to-cylinder variations using data-driven, cylinder-individual combustion models. This approach enables a systematic trade-off... [more]
Impact of Adding Bioethanol and Dimethyl Carbonate on Gasoline Properties
Sibel Osman, Olga Valerica Sapunaru, Ancaelena Eliza Sterpu, Timur Vasile Chis, Claudia I.Koncsag
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, dimethyl carbonate DMC, gasoline volatility, octane number, oxygenated fuel
Bioethanol and dimetyl carbonate (DMC) are considered alternative fuels and additives to the synthesis compounds used now, since bioethanol is a biofuel and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is non-toxic, biodegradable and can be produced in a cleaner way. In this study, the effect of adding dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol to gasoline on the volatility was investigated. The volatility was the main goal of this research but also, the effect on the antiknock properties was studied. Mixtures of gasoline with DMC or with bioethanol were prepared in different proportions of additive: 3%, 6% and 9% v/v. Additionally, mixtures with 3% v/v ethanol plus 3% or 6% v/v DMC, and3% DMC plus 6% v/v ethanol were prepared. For the volatility evaluation, the ASTM distillation curve and vapor pressure of these mixtures were determined experimentally in order to predict the performance of the resulting fuels. When adding oxygenated compounds, the increase in vapor pressure was proportional to the additive qua... [more]
Effect of Ethanol Added to Diesel Fuel on the Range of Fuel Spray
Artur Krzemiński, Adam Ustrzycki
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, diesel fuel, dodecanol, Ethanol, kinematic viscosity, spray macrostructure
The constantly growing number of vehicles sold and operated has resulted in greater contribution of automobiles to global pollution. One way to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and toxic compounds, including the particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx) contained in exhaust gases, is to use alternative fuels. Within this group of fuels, those of plant origin, mainly alcohols, are attracting more and more attention because of their high oxygen content (around 35%), low viscosity, and good atomisation. However, alternative fuels have different physicochemical properties than diesel fuel, and these may affect the formation of the fuel spray, which, in turn, impacts the operation of the internal combustion engine, operating parameters, and the purity of the exhaust gases emitted into the environment. To make sure this type of fuel can be used in compression ignition engines, it is necessary to gain a thorough understanding of the phenomena and relationships occurring during fuel injec... [more]
Using Mathematical Modeling to Evaluate the Performance of a Passenger Car When Operating on Various Fuels
Ivan Manko, Jonas Matijošius, Yevheniy Shuba, Alfredas Rimkus, Serhiy Gutarevych, Viktor Slavin
February 27, 2023 (v1)
Subject: Environment
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, environmental performance, fuel economy, LPG, mathematical model, spark ignition engine
This article presents the results of experimental and computational studies of the performance of a car with a gasoline engine with spark ignition when retrofitted with a system of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). To analyze the impact of the use of LPG instead of gasoline, the mathematical model of the car’s movement according to the modes of the European driving cycle has been refined. It was established that when using LPG for a car in the driving cycle, fuel consumption in energy units decreases by 10.38%. Gas consumption, determined in mass units, is lower than gasoline consumption. In load modes, this difference is about 8% and in idle mode, it reaches 16−18%. The adequacy of the mathematical model is confirmed by experimental studies of the car on modern equipment with the measurement of fuel efficiency and environmental performance in motion, according to the specified cycle. The deviation of the calculated fuel consumption from the results of experimental studies does not exceed... [more]
Estimates of the Decarbonization Potential of Alternative Fuels for Shipping as a Function of Vessel Type, Cargo, and Voyage
Li Chin Law, Epaminondas Mastorakos, Stephen Evans
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, cargo ship, containership, decarbonization, marine fuel, maritime energy, ship design, tanker
Fuel transition can decarbonize shipping and help meet IMO 2050 goals. In this paper, HFO with CCS, LNG with CCS, bio-methanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, ammonia, and electricity were studied using empirical ship design models from a fleet-level perspective and at the Tank-To-Wake level, to assist operators, technology developers, and policy makers. The cargo attainment rate CAR (i.e., cargo that must be displaced due to the low-C propulsion system), the ES (i.e., TTW energy needed per ton*n.m.), the CS (economic cost per ton*n.m.), and the carbon intensity index CII (gCO2 per ton*n.m.) were calculated so that the potential of the various alternatives can be compared quantitatively as a function of different criteria. The sensitivity of CAR towards ship type, fuel type, cargo type, and voyage distance were investigated. All ship types had similar CAR estimates, which implies that considerations concerning fuel transition apply equally to all ships (cargo, containership, tankers). Cargo type... [more]
Review of Energy Consumption by the Fish Farming and Processing Industry in Croatia and the Potential for Zero-Emissions Aquaculture
Tena Bujas, Marija Koričan, Manuela Vukić, Vladimir Soldo, Nikola Vladimir, Ailong Fan
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, decarbonization, energy consumption, mariculture, production, renewable energy sources
Higher energy efficiency and lower environmental impact have become very important aspects in the evaluation of the design and operation of technical systems. The same goes for the fish farming sector, which continuously aims to reduce its environmental footprint as well as its operating costs. This paper reviews the energy needs of the fish farming sector and their impact on the environment, and discusses the possibilities of improving the environmental friendliness of this sector by employing a higher share of renewable energy sources. The fish farming process is divided into its constitutive phases: fish breeding with associated activities, transportation, and handling of grown fish, together with relevant processes; and final processing and distribution to the customers. For these phases, the energy consumption and associated emissions, depending on the energy source, have been assessed. The parts of the process with the highest potential for the integration of alternative powering... [more]
Fuel-Water Emulsion as an Alternative Fuel for Gas Turbines in the Context of Combustion Process Properties—A Review
Paweł Niszczota, Maciej Chmielewski, Marian Gieras
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, CO emission, fuel-water emulsion, gas turbine, NOx emission, smoke emission
Fuel with the addition of water, forming fuel-water emulsions, is a potential way to reduce the emission of pollutants from gas turbines powered by any liquid fuel. This article analyzes the available work on the combustion of fuel-water emulsions in gas turbines. The literature analysis was preceded by a theoretical introduction on fuel-water emulsion, taking into account the factors influencing its micro- and macroscopic properties. The basic features of the agents used to stabilize the emulsion were also discussed and the process of its combustion was described. The analyzed research differed in terms of the test stands on which the experiments were conducted, the fuel constituting the continuous phase of the emulsion, the amount of water contained in the mixture and the method of producing the emulsion. On the basis of the conducted analysis, conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of feeding a gas turbine with a fuel-water emulsion on the emission of nitrogen oxides, carbo... [more]
A Review of the Emulsification Method for Alternative Fuels Used in Diesel Engines
Mohd Fadzli Hamid, Yew Heng Teoh, Mohamad Yusof Idroas, Mazlan Mohamed, Shukriwani Sa’ad, Sharzali Che Mat, Muhammad Khalil Abdullah, Thanh Danh Le, Heoy Geok How, Huu Tho Nguyen
February 24, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, emulsified biofuel, microemulsion, neat biofuel, surfactant
Diesel engines are one of the most popular reciprocating engines on the market today owing to their great thermal efficiency and dependability in energy conversion. Growing concerns about the depletion of fossil resources, fluctuating prices in the market, and environmental issues have prompted the search for renewable fuels with higher efficiencies compared with conventional fuels. Fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats has comparable characteristics to diesel fuel, but is renewable, despite being manufactured from various feedstocks. Nevertheless, the direct use of these fuels is strictly prohibited because it will result in many issues in the engine, affecting engine performance and durability, as well as emissions. To make biofuels as efficient as fossil fuels, it is essential to alter their characteristics. The use of emulsification techniques to obtain emulsified biofuels is one of the many ways to modify the fuel characteristics. Emulsification techniques allow for a d... [more]
Sustainable Biofuels from First Three Alcohol Families: A Critical Review
Muhamad Norkhizan Abdullah, Ahmad Fitri Yusop, Rizalman Mamat, Mohd Adnin Hamidi, Kumarasamy Sudhakar, Talal Yusaf
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: alcohol, Alternative Fuels, combustion, emission, performance, spark-ignition engine
With its unique qualities, such as infinite supply, high octane number, and capacity to cut greenhouse gas emissions, alcohol is a viable alternative fuel for SI engines. This review article aims to reveal to readers the effects of alcohol on the performance, combustion behavior, and emission characteristics of SI engines by collecting the outcomes from previous research. This article looks at methanol, ethanol, and butanol fuel qualities. The performance of SI engines with butanol, ethanol, and methanol combined with gasoline is investigated in terms of brake torque, brake power, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, mean effective pressure, and coefficient of variation under various conditions. Second, in-cylinder pressure, mass fraction burnt, ignition delay, pressure increases, and heat release rates are also used to evaluate the combustion characteristic. Finally, the article discusses pollutant emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, UHC, and exhaust gas temperatur... [more]
Promising Bioalcohols for Low-Emission Vehicles
Manju Dhakad Tanwar, Felipe Andrade Torres, Ali Mubarak Alqahtani, Pankaj Kumar Tanwar, Yashas Bhand, Omid Doustdar
February 23, 2023 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, bioalcohols, CI engines, emission, fuel properties
In recent decades, many kinds of research have been conducted on alternative fuels for compression ignition (CI) engines. Low/zero-carbon fuels, such as bioalcohols and hydrogen, are the most promising alternative fuels and are extensively studied because of their availability, ease of manufacturing, and environmental benefits. Using these promising fuels in CI engines is environmentally and economically beneficial. The most common alcohols are methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, propanol, butanol, n-butanol, tert-butanol, iso-butanol, and pentanol. The primary objective of this review paper is to examine the impact of bioalcohols and their blends with conventional diesel fuel in CI engines since these fuels possess characteristic properties that impact overall engine performance and exhaust emissions. This research also indicated that alcohols and blended fuels could be used as fuels in compression ignition engines. Chemical and physical properties of alcohols were examined, such as lubri... [more]
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Incorporated Guide Vane Length with SCC Piston for High-Viscosity Fuel Applications
Mohd Fadzli Hamid, Mohamad Yusof Idroas, Mazlan Mohamed, Shukriwani Sa'ad, Teoh Yew Heng, Sharzali Che Mat, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin, Muhammad Khalil Abdullah
May 4, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biofuels, engine modelling, guide vane, piston
Compression ignition (CI) engines that run on high-viscosity fuels (HVF) like emulsified biofuels generally demonstrate poor engine performance. An engine with a consistently low performance, in the long run, will have a negative effect on its lifespan. Poor combustion in engines occurs mainly due to the production of less volatile, less flammable, denser, and heavier molecules of HVF during injection. This paper proposes a guide vane design (GVD) to be installed at the intake manifold, which is incorporated with a shallow depth re-entrance combustion chamber (SCC) piston. This minor modification will be advantageous in improving the evaporation, diffusion, and combustion processes in the engine to further enhance its performance. The CAD models of the GVD and SCC piston were designed using SolidWorks 2018 while the flow run analysis of the cold flow CI engine was conducted using ANSYS Fluent Version 15. In this study, five designs of the GVD with varying lengths of the vanes from 0.6D... [more]
McMaster University Course Lectures in Energy Systems Engineering
Thomas Alan Adams II
December 17, 2018 (v1)
Lecture slides from the Fall 2018 CHEM ENG 4A03/6A03 Energy System Engineering course at McMaster University are attached. Energy Systems Engineering is a survey course that discusses many ways in which energy products are produced, transported, converted, and consumed in our society today. The lectures correspond to two 50-minute lectures a week for 13 weeks (some slide decks take 2 or 3 lectures to complete). The course cannot cover all energy systems of course, but focus mostly on large-scale or common processes either in use today or currently in development and research. The course takes a chemical engineering perspective so more attention is paid to processes and thermochemical phenomena and less attention is paid to issues related to mechanical engineering or electrical engineering, although there is some intersection.

The lecture slides include the following topics:

1.1. Life Cycle Analysis (basic review)
1.2. Key Metrics in Energy Systems
2.1. Coal Production
2.2. Nat... [more]
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