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Showing records 129 to 153 of 183. [First] Page: 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Last
Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads
Stefano Pietrosanti, William Holderbaum, Victor M. Becerra
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Energy Storage, flywheel, Optimization, power management, RTG crane, stochastic loads
In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS) has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG) crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The... [more]
Application of the Extension Taguchi Method to Optimal Capability Planning of a Stand-alone Power System
Meng-Hui Wang, Mei-Ling Huang, Zi-Yi Zhan, Chong-Jie Huang
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process (AHP), extension Taguchi method (ETM), extension theory, loss of load probability (LOLP), stand-alone power system (SAPS)
An Extension Taguchi Method (ETM) is proposed on the optimized allocation of equipment capacity for solar cell power generation, wind power generation, full cells, electrolyzer and hydrogen tanks. The ETM is based on the domain knowledge containing the product specifications and allocation levels provided by suppliers and design factors since most of the renewable energy equipment available in the market comes with a specific capacity. A proper orthogonal array is used to collect 18 sets of simulation responses. The extension theory is introduced to determine the correlation function, and factor effects are used to identify the optimized capacity allocation. The hours of power shortage are simulated using Matlab for all capacity allocations at the lowest establishment cost and the optimized capacity allocation of loss of load probability (LOLP). Finally, the extension theory, extension AHP theory, ETM and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are used to determine the optimized capacity all... [more]
Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply
Gorkem Sen, Ali Rifat Boynuegri, Mehmet Uzunoglu, Ozan Erdinc, João P. S. Catalão
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distributed generation, grid-enabled vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, uninterruptible power supply, vehicle-to-home
Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs) such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H). In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protectio... [more]
Effect of the Coordinative Optimization of Interruptible Loads in Primary Frequency Regulation on Frequency Recovery
Xia Zhou, Wei Li, Mengya Li, Qian Chen, Chaohai Zhang, Jilai Yu
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: coordinative optimization, frequency recovery, interruptible load, primary frequency regulation reserve
When faults and disturbances occur in power systems, backup power resources respond to maintain the system’s frequency, and the frequency recovery effect is related to the primary frequency regulation of the reserve capacity provided by and the response speeds of the system’s generating units and interruptible loads. The relationships between a system’s frequency and the frequency regulation capacity of the generating units and the interruptible loads are different. In this paper, an index for the frequency recovery effect is proposed based on the static frequency adjustment coefficient of the interruptible load and the adjustment coefficients of the generating units, and an optimization model of an interruptible load participating in primary frequency regulation is built with the objective of minimizing the cost of the primary frequency regulation reserve that uses the system’s frequency recovery effect as a constraint. The simulation results verify the validity of the model.
Evaluation of the Fluid Model Approach for the Sizing of Energy Storage in Wave-Wind Energy Systems
José A. Domínguez-Navarro, Elisabetta Tedeschi
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Brownian motion, storage sizing, storage systems, wave-wind generation
The application of energy storage in offshore renewable generation systems allows managing the intrinsic uncertainty of the resources and improving the utilization factor of the electrical network. Optimal storage design algorithms generally have to evaluate the behavior of the whole system thousands times before converging to the optimal solution and the reliability of the results obviously depends on the quality of input data. On the other hand, the utilization of simplified storage models in the design stage can reduce the simulation time drastically, while still providing useful information. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the applicability of a methodology for sizing the energy storage system in a hybrid wind and wave farm, which is based on fluid models. The description and performance of this modeling approach will be introduced and compared to standard design procedures based on extensive simulations. Advantages and limitations of each approach will be underlined and the... [more]
Aggregator-Based Interactive Charging Management System for Electric Vehicle Charging
Mingchao Xia, Qingying Lai, Yajiao Zhong, Canbing Li, Hsiao-Dong Chiang
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: charging management, electric vehicle (EV), EV Aggregator, load control
With the ongoing large-scale implementation of electric vehicles (EVs), the exploration of a more flexible approach to maintain fair interaction between EVs and the power grid is urgently required. This paper presents an aggregator-based interactive charging management scheme adopting interruptible load (IL) pricing, in which the EV aggregator will respond to the load control command of the grid in an EV interactive mode. Charging managements are carried out according to battery state-of-charge and the EV departure time in EV charging stations. A power-altering charging (PAC) control method is proposed to dispatch the EVs charging fairly in a station and guarantee EV owners’ preferences. The method does not require classical iterative procedures or heavy computations; furthermore, it is beneficial for EVs to depart earlier than expected for reasons beyond keeping homeostatic charging. The proposed scheme, which is tested to charge individual EVs well according to its preference, was im... [more]
Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings
Woo-Bin Bae, Sun-Hye Mun, Jung-Ho Huh
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: occupancy detection, occupant based control, plug-in device control, real-time occupant information collection, Wifi
The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P) software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.
Closed Solar House with Radiation Filtering Roof for Transplant Production in Arid Regions: Energy Consumption
Ahmed M. Abdel-Ghany, Ibrahim M. Al-Helal, Abdullah A. Alsadon, Abdullah A. Ibrahim, Mohamed R. Shady
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: fluid-roof, hot desert, radiation filter, solar radiation, transplants production
Under harsh weather conditions, closed transplant production systems (CTPS) are currently used to produce high quality transplants under artificial lighting. More than 70% of the electric energy consumed in the CTPS is for lighting. This article presents a simulation study to examine the possibility of using an alternative closed solar house, with radiation filtering roof, for transplant production in hot sunny regions to replace the artificial lighting in the CTPS with sunlight. The sidewalls of the house were insulated as in the CTPS and the roof was transparent, and made from polycarbonate hollow-channeled structure. There was a liquid radiation filter (LRF) (1.5% CuSO₄⁻water solution) flowing in a closed loop through the roof channels to absorb the solar heat load (i.e., the near infra-red radiation, NIR: 700⁻2500 nm) and transmit the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR: 400⁻700 nm) for plant growth. The LRF inlet temperature was assumed to be 25 °C to prevent vapor condensati... [more]
Distributed Energy Storage Using Residential Hot Water Heaters
Linas Gelažanskas, Kelum A. A. Gamage
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: demand side management (DSM), distributed thermal storage, forecasting, water heater
This paper proposes and analyses a new demand response technique for renewable energy regulation using smart hot water heaters that forecast water consumption at an individual dwelling level. Distributed thermal energy storage has many advantages, including high overall efficiency, use of existing infrastructure and a distributed nature. In addition, the use of a smart thermostatic controller enables the prediction of required water amounts and keeps temperatures at a level that minimises user discomfort while reacting to variations in the electricity network. Three cases are compared in this paper, normal operation, operation with demand response and operation following the proposed demand response mechanism that uses consumption forecasts. The results show that this technique can produce both up and down regulation, as well as increase water heater efficiency. When controlling water heaters without consumption forecast, the users experience discomfort in the form of hot water shortag... [more]
Intentional Islanding Algorithm for Distribution Network Based on Layered Directed Tree Model
Jian Su, Hao Bai, Pipei Zhang, Haitao Liu, Shihong Miao
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distributed generation, electrical betweenness, intentional islanding, layered directed tree, minimum spanning tree, shortest path
In this study, a novel intentional island model of a distribution system with distributed generations (DGs) is presented and the improved Dijkstra algorithm is used to solve this model. This paper abstracts the distribution network with DGs to the layered directed tree according to its radial structure and power restoration process. In consideration of grade, controllability, capacity, level and electrical betweenness of load, the model weights load and maximizes total load weight in the island. The proposed model considers power balance, node voltage, phase angle and transmission capability of the branch, and network connectivity to meet practical engineering requirements. The improved Dijkstra algorithm formulates a search rule to select the load that can be divided into an island in descending order of the shortest path between the load node and DG node. An optimal island partition scheme is achieved through three stages: origin island, baby island and mature island. Meanwhile, sche... [more]
Quantitative Model and Metrics of Electrical Grids’ Resilience Evaluated at a Power Distribution Level
Alexis Kwasinski
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: brittleness, dependence, fragility, power distribution, power grids, resilience, resistance
This paper presents a framework to systematically measure and assess power grids’ resilience with a focus on performance as perceived by customers at the power distribution level. The proposed framework considers an analogous measure of availability as a basic metric for resilience and defines other key resilience-related concepts and metrics, such as resistance and brittleness. This framework also provides a measurement for the degree of functional dependency of loads on power grids and demonstrates how the concepts of resilience and dependency are inherently related. It also discusses the implications of considering human-centered processes as fundamental constituting components of infrastructure systems. Thanks to its quantitative nature, the proposed resilience framework enables the creation of tools to evaluate power grids’ performance as a lifeline and to assess the effects of plans for optimal electrical power infrastructure deployment and operation. The discussion is supported... [more]
Multi-Objective Demand Response Model Considering the Probabilistic Characteristic of Price Elastic Load
Shengchun Yang, Dan Zeng, Hongfa Ding, Jianguo Yao, Ke Wang, Yaping Li
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: demand response, electricity consumption satisfaction (ECS), interaction benefit satisfaction (IBS), price elastic load (PEL), Stochastic Optimization, uncertainty
Demand response (DR) programs provide an effective approach for dealing with the challenge of wind power output fluctuations. Given that uncertain DR, such as price elastic load (PEL), plays an important role, the uncertainty of demand response behavior must be studied. In this paper, a multi-objective stochastic optimization problem of PEL is proposed on the basis of the analysis of the relationship between price elasticity and probabilistic characteristic, which is about stochastic demand models for consumer loads. The analysis aims to improve the capability of accommodating wind output uncertainty. In our approach, the relationship between the amount of demand response and interaction efficiency is developed by actively participating in power grid interaction. The probabilistic representation and uncertainty range of the PEL demand response amount are formulated differently compared with those of previous research. Based on the aforementioned findings, a stochastic optimization mode... [more]
Quantifying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Current Status and Trends
Yuan Chang, Guijun Li, Yuan Yao, Lixiao Zhang, Chang Yu
November 16, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: footprint quantification, interconnection, water-energy-food (WEF) system
Water, energy, and food are lifelines for modern societies. The continuously rising world population, growing desires for higher living standards, and inextricable links among the three sectors make the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus a vibrant research pursuit. For the integrated delivery of WEF systems, quantifying WEF connections helps understand synergies and trade-offs across the water, energy, and food sectors, and thus is a critical initial step toward integrated WEF nexus modeling and management. However, current WEF interconnection quantifications encounter methodological hurdles. Also, existing calculation results are scattered across a wide collection of studies in multiple disciplines, which increases data collection and interpretation difficulties. To advance robust WEF nexus quantifications and further contribute to integrated WEF systems modeling and management, this study: (i) summarizes the estimate results to date on WEF interconnections; (ii) analyzes methodological an... [more]
Rolling Horizon Model for Gasoline Blend Planning under Uncertainty in Demands
mahir jalanko, Vladimir Mahalec
October 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: production planning under uncertainty, supply-demand pinch
Use rolling horizon model to solve the gasoline blend planning under uncertainty in products demands. We show that an aggregated model based on supply-demand pinch points can improve executions times greatly
Correction: Jiménez, F., et al. System for Road Vehicle Energy Optimization Using Real Time Road and Traffic Information. Energies 2014, 7, 3576-3598
Felipe Jiménez, Wilmar Cabrera-Montiel, Santiago Tapia-Fernández
October 23, 2018 (v1)
In the original version of the article [1], insufficient acknowledgement was given for the original Dynamic Programming optimization tool. We apologize for this error. To correct this fact, Santiago Tapia-Fernández has been added as an author, and the acknowledgements and authors contributions have been corrected.
Optimal Bidding Strategy for Renewable Microgrid with Active Network Management
Seung Wan Kim, Jip Kim, Young Gyu Jin, Yong Tae Yoon
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: active network management, market participation of microgrid, microgrid operation, renewable microgrid
Active Network Management (ANM) enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG) and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities to achieve the stable operation using ANM. However, the actual power flow in the line connecting the main grid and microgrid may deviate significantly from the day-ahead bids if the bids are determined without consideration of the real-time adjustment through ANM, which will lead to a substantial imbalance cost. Therefore, this study proposes a formulation for obtaining an optimal bidding which reflects the change of power flow in the connecting line by real-time adjustment using ANM. The proposed formulation maximizes the expected profit of the microgrid considering various network and physical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed bidding strategy is verified through the simul... [more]
Matching of Energy Provisions in Multihop Wireless Infra-Structures
Rui Teng, Huan-Bang Li, Ryu Miura, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Peter Davis
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: energy provision, green energy, matching, network sustainability, wireless multihop infrastructures
Recently there have been large advances in energy technologies for battery-operated systems, including green energy resources and high capacity batteries. The effective use of battery energy resources in wireless infrastructure networks to improve the versatility and reliability of wireless communications is an important issue. Emerging applications of smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT), and emergency responses highly rely on the basic communication network infrastructures that enable ubiquitous network connections. However, energy consumption by nodes in a wireless infrastructure network depends on the transmissions of other nodes in the network. Considering this inter-dependence is necessary to achieve efficient provision of energy in wireless networks. This paper studies the issue of energy provision for wireless relay nodes in Wireless Multihop Infrastructures (WMI) assuming constraints on the total energy provision. We introduce a scheme of Energy Provision Matching (Matching-... [more]
Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks
Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili, Seyyed Ali Pourmousavi, Mehdi Savaghebi, Josep M. Guerrero, Mohammad Hashem Nehrir
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Optimization, photovoltaic (PV) panels, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), state of charge (SoC), vehicle to grid (V2G)
A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow (PF) from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS). The method uses genetic algorithm (GA) to increase photovoltaic (PV) penetration without jeopardizing PEV owners’ (QoS) and grid operating limits, such as voltage level of the grid buses. The method is applied to a part of the Danish low voltage (LV) grid to evaluate its effectiveness and capabilities. Different scenarios have been defined and tested using the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up t... [more]
A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs
Enrico Telaretti, Mariano Ippolito, Luigi Dusonchet
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: battery energy storage system, energy management, hourly electricity prices, optimal operation, price arbitrage
Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, where the customer electricity cost may vary at any hour of day, and power consumption can be managed in a more flexible and economical manner, taking advantage of the price differential. Instead of modifying their energy consumption, customers can install storage systems to reduce their electricity bill, shifting the energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. This paper develops a detailed storage model linking together technical, economic and electricity market parameters. The proposed operating strategy aims to maximize the profit of the storage owner (electricity customer) under simplifying assumptions, by determining the optimal charge/discharge schedule. The model can be appl... [more]
Heuristic Optimization of Consumer Electricity Costs Using a Generic Cost Model
Chris Ogwumike, Michael Short, Fathi Abugchem
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: decision support system, demand side management, heuristic algorithm, load scheduling, smart grid
Many new demand response strategies are emerging for energy management in smart grids. Real-Time Energy Pricing (RTP) is one important aspect of consumer Demand Side Management (DSM), which encourages consumers to participate in load scheduling. This can help reduce peak demand and improve power system efficiency. The use of Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSSs) for load scheduling has become necessary in order to enable consumers to respond to the changing economic value of energy across different hours of the day. The type of scheduling problem encountered by a consumer IDSS is typically NP-hard, which warrants the search for good heuristics with efficient computational performance and ease of implementation. This paper presents an extensive evaluation of a heuristic scheduling algorithm for use in a consumer IDSS. A generic cost model for hourly pricing is utilized, which can be configured for traditional on/off peak pricing, RTP, Time of Use Pricing (TOUP), Two-Tier Pricing... [more]
Energy Management Strategy for Microgrids by Using Enhanced Bee Colony Optimization
Whei-Min Lin, Chia-Sheng Tu, Ming-Tang Tsai
October 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: bee colony optimization, microgrid, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, time-of-use
This paper presents a microgrid (MG) energy management strategy by considering renewable energy and battery storage systems. Renewable energy, including wind power generation and solar power generation, is integrated into the distribution network, for which is formulated the optimal dispatch model of mixed-power generation by considering the charging/discharging scheduling of battery storage systems. The MG system has an electrical link for power exchange between the MG and the utility during different hours of the day. Based on the time-of-use (TOU) and all technical constraints, an enhanced bee colony optimization (EBCO) is proposed to solve the daily economic dispatch of MG systems. In the EBCO procedure, the self-adaption repulsion factor is embedded in the bee swarm of the BCO in order to improve the behavior patterns of each bee swarm and increase its search efficiency and accuracy in high dimensions. Different modifications in moving patterns of EBCO are proposed to search the f... [more]
Research on a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Energy Management Strategy Considering Drivability
Ye Yang, Youtong Zhang, Jingyi Tian, Si Zhang
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: drivability, dynamic programming, fuel economy, linear weight particle swarm optimization, plug-in hybrid electric bus
Plug-in hybrid electric buses (PHEBs) is some of the most promising products to address air pollution and the energy crisis. Considering the switching between different working modes often bring about sudden changes of the torque and the speed of different power sources, which may lead to the instability of the power output and affect the driving performance and ride comfort, it is of great significance to develop a real-time optimal energy management strategy for PHEBs to achieve the optimization of fuel economy and drivability. In this study, the proposed strategy includes an offline part and an online part. In the offline part, firstly, the energy conversion coefficient s(t) is optimized by linear weight particle swarm optimization algorithm (LinWPSO), then, the optimization results of s(t) are converted into a 2-dimensional look-up table. Secondly, combined with three typical driving cycle conditions, the gear-shifting correction and mode switching boundary parameters that affect t... [more]
The Effects of Dynamic Pricing of Electric Power on Consumer Behavior: A Propensity Score Analysis for Empirical Study on Nushima Island, Japan
Thanh Tam Ho, Sarana Shinkuma, Koji Shimada
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: demand response, dynamic pricing, local linear matching, propensity score analysis
This study aimed to investigate the change of consumer behavior in electric power consumption after the application of dynamic pricing via real-time feedback. Afield experiment of dynamic pricing was carried out on Nushima Island, which is located in Hyogo Prefecture in central Japan. The panel data of hourly electric power consumption among 50 households (including 22 control households and 28 treated households) were collected from a baseline survey (14 days before the dynamic pricing experiment was conducted) and during the 14-day experimental period. Propensity score analysis with local linear matching was employed to analyze the average treatment effects of dynamic pricing on consumer behavior. The results report that dynamic pricing plays a crucial role in reducing consumers’ electric power consumption—by 9.6% compared to the pre-experimental period.
An Overview of Energy Scenarios, Storage Systems and the Infrastructure for Vehicle-to-Grid Technology
Tohid Harighi, Ramazan Bayindir, Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban, Lucian Mihet-Popa, Eklas Hossain
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Batteries, electric vehicles, grid-to-vehicle, harmonic distortion, IEEE Bus standards, vehicle-to-grid
The increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most important problems in the world. Decreasing GHG emissions will be a big challenge in the future. The transportation sector uses a significant part of petroleum production in the world, and this leads to an increase in the emission of GHG. The result of this issue is that the population of the world befouls the environment by the transportation system automatically. Electric Vehicles (EV) have the potential to solve a big part of GHG emission and energy efficiency issues such as the stability and reliability of energy. Therefore, the EV and grid relation is limited to the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) or Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) function. Consequently, the grid has temporary energy storage in EVs’ batteries and electricity in exchange for fossil energy in vehicles. The energy actors and their research teams have determined some targets for 2050; hence, they hope to decrease the world temperature by 6 °C, or at least by 2 °C... [more]
Optimal Energy Management within a Microgrid: A Comparative Study
Luis Orlando Polanco Vasquez, Cristian Andrés Carreño Meneses, Alejandro Pizano Martínez, Juana López Redondo, Manuel Pérez García, José Domingo Álvarez Hervás
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: distributed power system, energy management, microgrid, optimal power flow
In this work, we focus on optimal energy management within the context of the tertiary control of a microgrid operating in grid-connected mode. Specifically, the optimal energy management problem is solved in a unified way by using the optimal power flow (OPF) and day-ahead concepts. The elements considered in the microgrid are a photovoltaic panel, a wind turbine, electric vehicles, a storage system, and a point of common coupling with the main grid. The aim of this paper consists of optimizing the economic energy dispatch within the microgrid considering known predictions of electricity demand, solar radiation, and wind speed for a given period of time. The OPF is solved using three different algorithms provided by the optimization toolbox of MATLAB® (R2015a, MathWorks®, Natick, MA, USA): the interior point method (IP), a hybrid genetic algorithm with interior point (GA-IP), and a hybrid direct search with interior point (patternsearch-IP). The efficiency and effectiveness of the alg... [more]
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