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Records with Keyword: Carbon Capture
Business Models for Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Technologies in the Steel Sector: A Qualitative Multi-Method Study
Hasan Muslemani, Xi Liang, Katharina Kaesehage, Jeffrey Wilson
July 17, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: business model, Carbon Capture, decarbonization, steel sector, utilization and storage
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is a combination of technologies capable of achieving large-scale reductions in carbon dioxide emissions across a variety of industries. Its application to date has however been mostly limited to the power sector, despite emissions from other industrial sectors accounting for around 30% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This paper explores the challenges of and requirements for implementing CCUS in non-power industrial sectors in general, and in the steel sector in particular, to identify drivers for the technology’s commercialization. To do so we first conducted a comprehensive literature review of business models of existing large-scale CCUS projects. We then collected primary qualitative data through a survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews with global CCUS experts from industry, academia, government, and consultancies. Our results reveal that the revenue model is the most critical element to building successful CCUS... [more]
Simulation-Based Design and Economic Evaluation of a Novel Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor for Power Production with Integrated CO2 Capture
Jan Hendrik Cloete, Mohammed N. Khan, Schalk Cloete, Shahriar Amini
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Capture, chemical looping combustion, coarse-grid simulations, Computational Fluid Dynamics, filtered two-fluid model, fluidization, internally circulating reactor, power production, reactor design, techno-economics
Limiting global temperature rise to well below 2 °C according to the Paris climate accord will require accelerated development, scale-up, and commercialization of innovative and environmentally friendly reactor concepts. Simulation-based design can play a central role in achieving this goal by decreasing the number of costly and time-consuming experimental scale-up steps. To illustrate this approach, a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was utilized in this study to simulate a novel internally circulating fluidized bed reactor (ICR) for power production with integrated CO2 capture on an industrial scale. These simulations were made computationally feasible by using closures in a filtered two-fluid model (fTFM) to model the effects of important subgrid multiphase structures. The CFD simulations provided valuable insight regarding ICR behavior, predicting that CO2 capture efficiencies and purities above 95% can be achieved, and proposing a reasonable reactor size. The... [more]
Technoeconomic Evaluation of a Process Capturing CO2 Directly from Air
Romesh Pramodya Wijesiri, Gregory Paul Knowles, Hasina Yeasmin, Andrew Forbes Alexander Hoadley, Alan Loyd Chaffee
October 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Adsorption, Carbon Capture, cost, direct air capture, economic, model, polyethyleneimine, steam, temperature vacuum swing
Capturing CO2 directly from air is one of the options for mitigating the effects global climate change, and therefore determining its cost is of great interest. A process model was proposed and validated using laboratory results for adsorption/desorption of CO2, with a branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) loaded mesocellular foam (MCF) silica sorbent. The model was subjected to a Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) to evaluate the technoeconomic feasibility of the process and to identify the operating conditions which yielded the lowest cost. The objectives of the MOO were to minimize the cost of CO2 capture based on a discounted cash flow analysis, while simultaneously maximizing the quantity of CO2 captured. This optimization identified the minimum cost of capture as 612 USD tonne−1 for dry air entering the process at 25 °C, and 657 USD tonne−1 for air at 22 °C and 39% relative humidity. The latter represents more realistic conditions which can be expected for subtropical climates. The co... [more]
Carbon Mineralization by Reaction with Steel-Making Waste: A Review
Mohamed H. Ibrahim, Muftah H. El-Naas, Abdelbaki Benamor, Saad S. Al-Sobhi, Zhien Zhang
June 18, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Capture, CO2 sequestration, steel slag, steel-making waste
Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is taking the lead as a means for mitigating climate change. It is considered a crucial bridging technology, enabling carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from fossil fuels to be reduced while the energy transition to renewable sources is taking place. CCS includes a portfolio of technologies that can possibly capture vast amounts of CO₂ per year. Mineral carbonation is evolving as a possible candidate to sequester CO₂ from medium-sized emissions point sources. It is the only recognized form of permanent CO₂ storage with no concerns regarding CO₂ leakage. It is based on the principles of natural rock weathering, where the CO₂ dissolved in rainwater reacts with alkaline rocks to form carbonate minerals. The active alkaline elements (Ca/Mg) are the fundamental reactants for mineral carbonation reaction. Although the reaction is thermodynamically favored, it takes place over a large time scale. The challenge of mineral carbonation is to offset this limitat... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of Combining Petroleum Coke and Natural Gas for Efficient Liquid Fuels Production
Ikenna Joseph Okeke, Thomas A Adams II
October 30, 2018 (v1)
Waste petcoke can be converted to liquid fuels instead of stockpiling which reduces the net CO2 emission by displacing additional petroleum usage. In this study, three petcoke to liquid fuels designs were compared based on the following performance criteria: conversion efficiency, economics, and environmental impacts. The designs considered were petcoke gasification only, a combination of natural gas reforming and petcoke gasification, and natural gas reforming integrated in the petcoke gasification step. The processes were modeled and simulated using a combination of Aspen Plus v10, ProMax, and gProms software. Each of the configurations were designed to operate with and without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology along with a corresponding carbon emission penalty. Performance metrics analyzed were the net present value, minimum diesel selling price, cost of CO2 avoided, and cradle to plant exit gate life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. From the analysis, the integration... [more]
Meta-study of carbon dioxide capture technologies: Finding the signal in the noise.
Thomas Alan Adams II, Leila Hoseinzade, Pranav Bhaswanth Madabhushi, Ikenna J. Okeke
October 31, 2018 (v2)
Keywords: Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration, Chemical Looping Combustion, CO2 membrane, IGCC, Oxyfuels, Post-combustion capture, Pre-combustion capture, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
We conducted a meta-study of CO2 capture processes, examining nearly 100 techno-economic analyses published in the recent open literature. Normally, it is difficult to compare one study to another because each study uses its own set of assumptions, such as plant scale, geography, market parameters, and inconsistent definitions of key metrics such as the cost of CO2 avoided (CCA). In this work, we present normalized versions of these studies using a consistent basis of comparison, such as net power delivered, base year of operation, pipeline CO2 pressure, currency, country of construction, and so on. In so doing, we are able to draw meaningful conclusions and direct comparisons between different classes of CO2 capture technology. The technologies considered include coal and gas-based processes using capture strategies including solvent-based post-combustion carbon capture, gasification-based strategies, membrane-based approaches, oxyfuel combustion, chemical looping combustion, calcium... [more]
Application of a Two-Level Rolling Horizon Optimization Scheme to a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell and Compressed Air Energy Storage Plant for the Optimal Supply of Zero-Emissions Peaking Power
Jake Nease, Nina Monteiro, Thomas A. Adams II
June 19, 2018 (v1)
We present a new two-level rolling horizon optimization framework applied to a zero-emissions coal-fueled solid-oxide fuel cell power plant with compressed air energy storage for peaking applications. Simulations are performed where the scaled hourly demand for the year 2014 from the Ontario, Canada market is met as closely as possible. It was found that the proposed two-level strategy, by slowly adjusting the SOFC stack power upstream of the storage section, can improve load-following performance by 86% compared to the single-level optimization method proposed previously. A performance analysis indicates that the proposed approach uses the available storage volume to almost its maximum potential, with little improvement possible without changing the system itself. Further improvement to load-following is possible by increasing storage volumes, but with diminishing returns. Using an economically-focused objective function can improve annual revenue generation by as much as 6.5%, but no... [more]
Comparison of CO2 Capture Approaches for Fossil-Based Power Generation: Review and Meta-Study
Thomas A. Adams II, Leila Hoseinzade, Pranav Bhaswanth Madabhushi, Ikenna J. Okeke
June 19, 2018 (v2)
Keywords: Carbon Capture, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration, CO2 membrane, IGCC, oxyfuels, Post-combustion capture, Pre-combustion capture, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
This work is a meta-study of CO2 capture processes for coal and natural gas power generation, including technologies such as post-combustion solvent-based carbon capture, the integrated gasification combined cycle process, oxyfuel combustion, membrane-based carbon capture processes, and solid oxide fuel cells. A literature survey of recent techno-economic studies was conducted, compiling relevant data on costs, efficiencies, and other performance metrics. The data were then converted in a consistent fashion to a common standard (such as a consistent net power output, country of construction, currency, base year of operation, and captured CO2 pressure) such that a meaningful and direct comparison of technologies can be made. The processes were compared against a standard status quo power plant without carbon capture to compute metrics such as cost of CO2 emissions avoided to identify the most promising designs and technologies to use for CO2 emissions abatement.
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