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Records with Keyword: Ethanol
Comparison of Cooling System Designs for an Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using an Organic Rankine Cycle on a Heavy Duty Truck
Nicolas Stanzel, Thomas Streule, Markus Preißinger, Dieter Brüggemann
February 5, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: 1-D simulation, cooling system, Ethanol, heat recovery, heavy-duty truck, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)
A complex simulation model of a heavy duty truck, including an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system and a vehicle cooling system, was applied to determine the system fuel economy potential in a typical drive cycle. Measures to increase the system performance were investigated and a comparison between two different cooling system designs was derived. The base design, which was realized on a Mercedes-Benz Actros vehicle revealed a fuel efficiency benefit of 2.6%, while a more complicated design would generate 3.1%. Furthermore, fully transient simulation results were performed and are compared to steady state simulation results. It is shown that steady state simulation can produce comparable results if averaged road data are used as boundary conditions.
Interdependencies between Biofuel, Fuel and Food Prices: The Case of the Brazilian Ethanol Market
Deborah Bentivoglio, Adele Finco, Mirian Rumenos Piedade Bacchi
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Ethanol, Gasoline, granger causality, prices, sugar, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)
Brazil is currently the world’s largest sugar producer and exporter, as well as the world’s largest producer and consumer of sugarcane ethanol as a transportation fuel. The growth of this market originates from a combination of government policies and technological change, in both the sugarcane ethanol processing sector and the manufacture of flex-fuel vehicles. In recent years however, ethanol production has been questioned due to its possible impact on food prices. The present paper aims to explore the impact of Brazilian ethanol prices on sugar and gasoline prices. The relationships between a times series of these prices are investigated using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), supported by Granger Causality tests. In addition, Impulse Response Functions (IRFs) and Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVD) are computed in order to investigate the dynamic interrelationships within these series. Our results suggest that ethanol prices are affected by both food and fuel prices... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of Integrating First and Second-Generation Ethanol Production Using Filamentous Fungi: An Industrial Case Study
Karthik Rajendran, Sreevathsava Rajoli, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Ethanol, lignocelluloses, process design, process integration, Technoeconomic Analysis
The 2nd generation plants producing ethanol from lignocelluloses demand risky and high investment costs. This paper presents the energy- and economical evaluations for integrating lignocellulose in current 1st generation dry mill ethanol processes, using filamentous fungi. Dry mills use grains and have mills, liquefactions, saccharifications, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol, while their stillage passes centrifugation, and evaporation to recycle the water and dry the cake and evaporated syrup into animal feed. In this work, a bioreactor was considered to cultivate fungi on the stillage either before or after the centrifugation step together with pretreated lignocellulosic wheat bran. The results showed that the integrated 1st and 2nd generation ethanol process requires a capital investment of 77 million USD, which could yield NPV of 162 million USD after 20 years. Compared to the fungal cultivation on thin stillage modified 1st generation process, the integrated proces... [more]
An Experimental Study on the Potential Usage of Acetone as an Oxygenate Additive in PFI SI Engines
Lei Meng, Chunnian Zeng, Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Timothy H. Lee, Chia-fon Lee
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: acetone, Ethanol, Gasoline, PFI, SI engine
To face the challenges of fossil fuel shortage and stringent emission norms, there is growing interest in the potential usage of alternative fuels such as bio-ethanol and bio-butanol in internal combustion engines. More recently, Acetone⁻Butanol⁻Ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product of bio-butanol fermentation, has been gaining a lot of attention as an alternative fuel. The literature shows that the acetone in the ABE blends plays an important part in improving the combustion performance and emissions, owing to its higher volatility. Acetone and ethanol are the low-value byproducts during bio-butanol production, so using acetone and ethanol as fuel additives may have both economic and environmental benefits. This study focuses on the differences in combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with pure gasoline (G100), ethanol-containing gasoline (E10 and E30) and acetone-ethanol-gasoline blends (AE10 and AE30 at A:E volumetric... [more]
Assessment of feasibility and benefits of replacing bioethanol with biobutanol in the transportation fuels industry
Merissa Wiebe, Thomas Alan Adams II
November 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Biobutanol, Butanol, Ethanol, Transportation Fuels
In recent years there has been a strong drive towards transitioning the transportation fuels market to a sustainable alternative. Biofuels has emerged as one of the solutions and is receiving a great deal of focus in research, industry, and politics. Ethanol is currently the most popular biofuel, but butanol has been acknowledged as a superior alternative in several regards. In this paper, the chemical and physical properties of butanol are compared to ethanol and gasoline. In addition, the feasibility of a butanol-based economy is assessed in terms of available supply, compatibility in spark ignition engines in terms of performance and emissions, and ability to easily transport, store, and dispense the fuel. Life cycle assessments of biobutanol are also reviewed, which ultimately suggest that butanol has the potential to be a sustainable alternative. However, the yield of biobutanol production via ABE fermentation, the primary process currently utilized to produce the fuel, is low. Ad... [more]
Fumed Silica Nanoparticles Incorporated in Quaternized Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite Membrane for Enhanced Power Densities in Direct Alcohol Alkaline Fuel Cells
Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar, Cheng-Hsin Juan, Guan-Ming Liao, Jia-Shiun Lin, Chun-Chen Yang, Wei-Ting Ma, Jiann-Hua You, Shingjiang Jessie Lue
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: cell performance, Ethanol, fumed silica, ionic conductivity, Methanol, quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol)
A nanocomposite polymer membrane based on quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol)/fumed silica (QPVA/FS) was prepared via a quaternization process and solution casting method. The physico-chemical properties of the QPVA/FS membrane were investigated. Its high ionic conductivity was found to depend greatly on the concentration of fumed silica in the QPVA matrix. A maximum conductivity of 3.50 × 10−2 S/cm was obtained for QPVA/5%FS at 60 °C when it was doped with 6 M KOH. The permeabilities of methanol and ethanol were reduced with increasing fumed silica content. Cell voltage and peak power density were analyzed as functions of fumed silica concentration, temperature, methanol and ethanol concentrations. A maximum power density of 96.8 mW/cm² was achieved with QPVA/5%FS electrolyte using 2 M methanol + 6 M KOH as fuel at 80 °C. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm² was obtained using the QPVA/5%FS electrolyte with 3 M ethanol + 5 M KOH as fuel. The resulting peak power densities are higher than the... [more]
Autoignition Behavior of an Ethanol-Methylcellulose Gel Droplet in a Hot Environment
Donggi Lee, Jonghan Won, Seung Wook Baek, Hyemin Kim
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: autoignition, combustion, droplet, Ethanol, gel propellant
Autoignition of an ethanol-based gel droplet was experimentally investigated by adding 10 wt % of methylcellulose as gellant to liquid ethanol. Experimental studies of the ignition behavior of the gel droplet were found to be quite rare. The initial droplet diameter was 1.17 ± 0.23 mm. The gel droplet was suspended on a K-type thermocouple and its evaporation, ignition and combustion characteristics were evaluated and compared with pure ethanol at an ambient temperature of 600, 700, and 800 °C under atmospheric pressure conditions. The gel droplet exhibited swelling and vapor jetting phenomena. Before ignition, a linear decrease in droplet diameter followed by a sudden increase was repeatedly observed, which was caused by evaporation and swelling processes, respectively. Major droplet swelling was detected just before the onset of ignition at all temperatures. But no further swelling was detected after ignition. For the gel droplet, the ignition delay accounted for 93% of the droplet l... [more]
Effects of Catalysts and Membranes on the Performance of Membrane Reactors in Steam Reforming of Ethanol at Moderate Temperature
Manabu Miyamoto, Yuki Yoshikawa, Yasunori Oumi, Shin-ichi Yamaura, Shigeyuki Uemiya
July 30, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: amorphous alloy membranes, Ethanol, membrane reactor, Steam Reforming
Steam reforming of ethanol in the membrane reactor using the Pd77Ag23 membrane was evaluated in Ni/CeO₂ and Co/CeO₂ at atmospheric pressure. At 673 K, the H₂ yield in the Pd77Ag23 membrane reactor over Co/CeO₂ was found to be higher than that over Ni/CeO₂, although the H₂ yield over Ni/CeO₂ exceeded that over Co/CeO₂ at 773 K. This difference was owing to their reaction mechanism. At 773 K, the effect of H₂ removal could be understood as the equilibrium shift. In contrast, the H₂ removal kinetically inhibited the reverse methane steam reforming at low temperature. Thus, the low methane-forming reaction rate of Co/CeO₂ was favorable at 673 K. The addition of a trace amount of Ru increased the H₂ yield effectively in the membrane reactor, indicating that a reverse H₂ spill over mechanism of Ru would enhance the kinetical effect of H₂ separation. Finally, the effect of membrane performance on the reactor performance by using amorphous alloy membranes with different compositions was evalua... [more]
Techno-economic comparison of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation using various extractants
Giancarlo Dalle Ave, Thomas A. Adams II
June 12, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Acetone, Butanol, Cost of CO2 Emissions Avoided, Ethanol, Extraction, Fermentation, Technoeconomic Analysis
This work compares various chemicals for use as extractants in second-generation Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation on economic and environmental bases. Both non-toxic and toxic extractants are considered in this study. The combinative extractive-distillation separation process was modelled using a combination of Microsoft Excel 2013, MATLAB 2015 and Aspen Plus v8.8. Separation trains were designed and optimized for each extractant to best take advantage of extractant properties. Upstream units considered in this analysis include: biomass (switchgrass) solids processing, biomass pre-treatment and saccharification, and fermentation. Downstream processes considered include utility generation and wastewater treatment. The cost of CO2 equivalent emissions avoided (CCA) was used as the metric to compare the environmental impact of each process as compared to conventional petroleum-based gasoline. The economic and environmental best extractant is shown to be 2-ethyl-hexanol with a minimum... [more]
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