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Records with Keyword: Natural Gas
Improvement of Energy Efficiency and Productivity in an Electric Arc Furnace through the Modification of Side-Wall Injector Systems
Yonmo Sung, Sangyoun Lee, Kyungmoon Han, Jaduck Koo, Seongjae Lee, Doyoung Jang, Changyong Oh, Byunghwa Jang
April 16, 2021 (v1)
Keywords: electric arc furnace, energy savings, Natural Gas, oxy-fuel burner, oxygen lancing, steelmaking
The energy cost of producing steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) has a sizable influence on the prices of natural gas and electricity. Therefore, it is important to use these energies efficiently via a tailored oxy-fuel combustion burner and oxygen lance. In this study, an important modification of the side-wall injector system in the EAF at Hyundai Steel Incheon works was implemented to reduce electrical energy consumption and improve productivity. A protruding water-cooled copper jacket, including a newly designed burner, was developed to reduce the distance between the jet nozzle and the molten steel. In addition, the jet angles for the burner and lance were separately set for each scrap melting and refining mode. The modifications led to a reduction in electrical energy consumption of 5 kWh/t and an increase in productivity of approximately 3.1 t/h. Consequently, total energy cost savings of 0.3 USD/t and a corresponding annual cost savings of approximately 224,000 USD/year were... [more]
On the Impacts of Pre-Heated Natural Gas Injection in Blast Furnaces
Tyamo Okosun, Samuel Nielson, John D’Alessio, Shamik Ray, Stuart Street, Chenn Zhou
October 26, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: blast furnace, combustion, Computational Fluid Dynamics, fuel injection, Natural Gas, numerical simulation, RAFT
During recent years, there has been great interest in exploring the potential for high-rate natural gas (NG) injection in North American blast furnaces (BFs) due to the fuel’s relatively low cost, operational advantages, and reduced carbon footprint. However, it is well documented that increasing NG injection rates results in declining raceway flame temperatures (a quenching effect on the furnace, so to speak), with the end result of a functional limit on the maximum injection rate that can be used while maintaining stable operation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the BF raceway and shaft regions developed by Purdue University Northwest’s (PNW) Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) have been applied to simulate multi-phase reacting flow in industry blast furnaces with the aim of exploring the use of pre-heated NG as a method of widening the BF operating window. Simulations predicted that pre-heated NG injection could increase the flow of sensib... [more]
The Efficiency of Bimodal Silica as a Carbon Dioxide Adsorbent for Natural Gas Treatment
Fabíola Correia de Carvalho, Paula Fabiane do Nascimento, Márcio Rodrigo Oliveira de Souza, Antonio Souza Araujo
May 8, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: carbon dioxide adsorption, hybrid materials, methane, Natural Gas, silica
Natural gas (NG) production in Brazil has shown a significant increase in recent years. Oil and natural gas exploration and refining activities indicate circa 86% carbon dioxide content in NG, representing a serious problem for environmental issues related to greenhouse gas emissions and increases in global warming. New technologies using CO2 capture materials have been shown to be more efficient than conventional processes. In this work, a bimodal meso−macroporous silica adsorbent for CO2 adsorption in NG was synthesized and evaluated as a promising material for use in natural gas treatment systems, as silica has specific textural properties that facilitate the capture and storage of this gas. The adsorbent was obtained from silica via the hydrothermal method with n-dodecane emulsion and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and the BET specific surface area. Adsorption capacity tests were performed for CO2, methane, and their mixture... [more]
Numerical Analysis of High-Pressure Direct Injection Dual-Fuel Diesel-Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Engines
Alberto Boretti
May 2, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: compression ignition, cryogenic gas, diesel engines, direct injection, dual fuel engines, greenhouse gas emissions, Natural Gas, particulate matter
Dual fuel engines using diesel and fuels that are gaseous at normal conditions are receiving increasing attention. They permit to achieve the same (or better) than diesel power density and efficiency, steady-state, and substantially similar transient performances. They also permit to deliver better than diesel engine-out emissions for CO2, as well as particulate matter, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxides. The adoption of injection in the liquid phase permits to further improve the power density as well as the fuel conversion efficiency. Here, a model is developed to study a high-pressure, 1600 bar, liquid phase injector for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in a high compression ratio, high boost engine. The engine features two direct injectors per cylinder, one for the diesel and one for the LNG. The engine also uses mechanically assisted turbocharging (super-turbocharging) to improve the steady-state and transient performances of the engine, decoupling the power supply at the turbin... [more]
Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment of a Combined Petroleum Coke and Natural Gas to Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Process
Thomas A. Adams II
March 13, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
In this study, a well-to-wheels life cycle assessment was conducted to determine the environmental impacts from disposing of petroleum coke by converting it into liquid fuel. Specifically, three processes for converting petroleum coke and natural gas to Fischer Tropsch diesel were investigated, both with and without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Impact categories were calculated using the EPA’s TRACI 2.1 US-Canada 2008 midpoint method in SimaPro software. In addition, the impact of grid emissions on the overall process was assessed using two representative Canadian locations with high (Alberta) and low (Ontario) grid emissions. The results of each impact category were compared among the designs and against conventional petroleum and oil-sands derived diesel. Key findings showed that the proposed designs when operated using CCS in the low-emissions-grid location had lower life cycle GHG emissions than conventional petroleum and oil-sands derived diesel. Nevertheless, the vario... [more]
Extreme Learning Machine-Based Model for Solubility Estimation of Hydrocarbon Gases in Electrolyte Solutions
Narjes Nabipour, Amir Mosavi, Alireza Baghban, Shahaboddin Shamshirband, Imre Felde
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: Big Data, chemical process model, data science, deep learning, electrolyte solution, extreme learning machines, hydrocarbon gases, Machine Learning, Natural Gas, prediction model, solubility
Calculating hydrocarbon components solubility of natural gases is known as one of the important issues for operational works in petroleum and chemical engineering. In this work, a novel solubility estimation tool has been proposed for hydrocarbon gases—including methane, ethane, propane, and butane—in aqueous electrolyte solutions based on extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm. Comparing the ELM outputs with a comprehensive real databank which has 1175 solubility points yielded R-squared values of 0.985 and 0.987 for training and testing phases respectively. Furthermore, the visual comparison of estimated and actual hydrocarbon solubility led to confirm the ability of proposed solubility model. Additionally, sensitivity analysis has been employed on the input variables of model to identify their impacts on hydrocarbon solubility. Such a comprehensive and reliable study can help engineers and scientists to successfully determine the important thermodynamic properties, which are key f... [more]
The Impact of Shale Gas on the Cost and Feasibility of Meeting Climate Targets—A Global Energy System Model Analysis and an Exploration of Uncertainties
Sheridan Few, Ajay Gambhir, Tamaryn Napp, Adam Hawkes, Stephane Mangeon, Dan Bernie, Jason Lowe
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: climate change mitigation, energy economics, energy scenarios, energy system analysis, fugitive methane emissions, Natural Gas, shale gas, supply curves, TIMES Integrated Assessment Model (TIAM)
There exists considerable uncertainty over both shale and conventional gas resource availability and extraction costs, as well as the fugitive methane emissions associated with shale gas extraction and its possible role in mitigating climate change. This study uses a multi-region energy system model, TIAM (TIMES integrated assessment model), to consider the impact of a range of conventional and shale gas cost and availability assessments on mitigation scenarios aimed at achieving a limit to global warming of below 2 °C in 2100, with a 50% likelihood. When adding shale gas to the global energy mix, the reduction to the global energy system cost is relatively small (up to 0.4%), and the mitigation cost increases by 1%⁻3% under all cost assumptions. The impact of a “dash for shale gas”, of unavailability of carbon capture and storage, of increased barriers to investment in low carbon technologies, and of higher than expected leakage rates, are also considered; and are each found to have t... [more]
Investigation of the Flow Characteristics of Methane Hydrate Slurries with Low Flow Rates
Cuiping Tang, Xiangyong Zhao, Dongliang Li, Yong He, Xiaodong Shen, Deqing Liang
July 26, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: flow assurance, flow characteristics, hydrate, Natural Gas, sludge, slurry
Gas hydrate blockage in pipelines during offshore production becomes a major problem with increasing water depth. In this work, a series of experiments on gas hydrate formation in a flow loop was performed with low flow rates of 0.33, 0.66, and 0.88 m/s; the effects of the initial subcooling, flow rate, pressure, and morphology were investigated for methane hydrate formation in the flow loop. The results indicate that the differential pressure drop (ΔP) across two ends of the horizontal straight pipe increases with increasing hydrate concentration at the early stage of gas hydrate formation. When the flow rates of hydrate fluid are low, the higher the subcooling is, the faster the transition of the hydrates macrostructures. Gas hydrates can agglomerate, and sludge hydrates appear at subcoolings of 6.5 and 8.5 °C. The difference between the ΔP values at different flow rates is small, and there is no obvious influence of the flow rates on ΔP. Three hydrate macrostructures were observed:... [more]
Performance Study on a Single-Screw Expander for a Small-Scale Pressure Recovery System
Guoqiang Li, Yuting Wu, Yeqiang Zhang, Ruiping Zhi, Jingfu Wang, Chongfang Ma
March 15, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Other
Keywords: Natural Gas, pressure energy recovery, single-screw expander
A single-screw expander with 195 mm diameter is developed to recover pressure energy in letdown stations. An experiment system is established using compressed air as a working fluid instead of natural gas. Experiments are conducted via measurements for important parameters, such as inlet and outlet temperature and pressure, volume flow rate and power output. The influence of inlet pressure and rotational speed on the performance are also analyzed. Results indicate that the single-screw expander achieved good output characteristics, in which 2800 rpm is considered the best working speed. The maximum volumetric efficiency, isentropic efficiency, overall efficiency, and the lowest air-consumption are 51.1 kW, 83.5%, 66.4%, 62.2%, and 44.1 kg/(kW·h), respectively. If a single-screw expander is adopted in a pressure energy recovery system applied in a certain domestic natural gas letdown station, the isentropic efficiency of the single-screw expander and overall efficiency of the system are... [more]
Life Cycle Assessment of a HYSOL Concentrated Solar Power Plant: Analyzing the Effect of Geographic Location
Blanca Corona, Diego Ruiz, Guillermo San Miguel
November 28, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: biomethane, Chile, environment, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Mexico, Natural Gas, solar energy, South Africa, Spain
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting of a combined cycle configuration with a 100 MWe steam turbine and an 80 MWe gas-fed turbine with biomethane. Technological developments must be supported by the identification, quantification, and evaluation of the environmental impacts produced. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental performance of a CSP plant based on HYSOL technology using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology while considering different locations. The scenarios investigated include different geographic locations (Spain, Chile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mexico, and South Africa), an alternative modelling procedure for biomethane, and the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel. Results indicate that... [more]
Techno-Economic Analysis of Combining Petroleum Coke and Natural Gas for Efficient Liquid Fuels Production
Ikenna Joseph Okeke, Thomas A Adams II
October 30, 2018 (v1)
Waste petcoke can be converted to liquid fuels instead of stockpiling which reduces the net CO2 emission by displacing additional petroleum usage. In this study, three petcoke to liquid fuels designs were compared based on the following performance criteria: conversion efficiency, economics, and environmental impacts. The designs considered were petcoke gasification only, a combination of natural gas reforming and petcoke gasification, and natural gas reforming integrated in the petcoke gasification step. The processes were modeled and simulated using a combination of Aspen Plus v10, ProMax, and gProms software. Each of the configurations were designed to operate with and without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology along with a corresponding carbon emission penalty. Performance metrics analyzed were the net present value, minimum diesel selling price, cost of CO2 avoided, and cradle to plant exit gate life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. From the analysis, the integration... [more]
Diesel-Minimal Combustion Control of a Natural Gas-Diesel Engine
Florian Zurbriggen, Richard Hutter, Christopher Onder
October 23, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: closed-loop control, combustion control, Diesel, dual fuel, engine control, extremum seeking, internal combustion engine, Natural Gas, Optimization
This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion only, we propose a method that simultaneously controls the combustion phasing and minimizes the amount of diesel used. Minimizing the amount of diesel while keeping the center of combustion at a constant value is formulated as an optimization problem with an equality constraint. A combination of feedback control and extremum seeking is used to solve this optimization problem online. The necessity to separate the different time scales is discussed and a structure is proposed that facilitates this separation for this specific example. The proposed method is validated by experiments on a test bench.
Approximating Nonlinear Relationships for Optimal Operation of Natural Gas Transport Networks
Kody Kazda, Xiang Li
October 13, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Optimization
Keywords: Compressors, Fuel Cost Minimization Problem, GAMS, Matlab, Natural Gas, Optimization
Source code for the case study presented in the paper "Approximating Nonlinear Relationships for Optimal Operation of Natural Gas Transport Networks". The case study involves solving the compressor fuel cost minimization problem (FCMP) on three simple natural gas networks. For each gas network three different formulations of the FCMP are tested: a common simplified FCMP model (FCMP_S), the novel approximation FCMP model (FCMP_N) that is developed in the paper, and a partially rigorous FCMP model (FCMP_PR) that models components of the model using their most rigorous calculations where feasible. The FCMP for each of these tests was optimized using GAMS, for which the code is provided. The accuracy of each of the three models was then assessed by comparing them to a rigorous simulation. The rigorous simulation was coded in Matlab and is provided, where separate files are used to calculate the rigorous gas pressure drop along a pipeline, and the energy input required for gas compression... [more]
Understanding Continuance Usage of Natural Gas: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evaluation
Victor Fernández-Guzmán, Edgardo R. Bravo
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: continuance usage, expectation-confirmation, Natural Gas
The adoption of natural gas increased notably last years, and there is some recognition that it improves the quality of life of inhabitants. While initial acceptance is an essential first step, the continued use is relevant to the long-term success of any technology. However, the literature on energy has focused on adoption and has devoted less attention to models that explain continuance usage. Accordingly, this study developed a model to explain continuance usage, grounded in Expectation-Confirmation Model (ECM). Unlike adoption models, confirmation of previous expectations and satisfaction with the experience of use have a relevant role in this phenomenon. Data was gathered through a questionnaire to 435 users of the service in a Latin American metropolis, and structural equations model was used for analysis. The results show that constructs of the ECM (perceived usefulness, disconfirmation, and satisfaction) influences on continuance intention. While the price impacts as expected,... [more]
Short-Term Load Forecasting of Natural Gas with Deep Neural Network Regression †
Gregory D. Merkel, Richard J. Povinelli, Ronald H. Brown
September 21, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: artificial neural networks, deep learning, Natural Gas, short term load forecasting
Deep neural networks are proposed for short-term natural gas load forecasting. Deep learning has proven to be a powerful tool for many classification problems seeing significant use in machine learning fields such as image recognition and speech processing. We provide an overview of natural gas forecasting. Next, the deep learning method, contrastive divergence is explained. We compare our proposed deep neural network method to a linear regression model and a traditional artificial neural network on 62 operating areas, each of which has at least 10 years of data. The proposed deep network outperforms traditional artificial neural networks by 9.83% weighted mean absolute percent error (WMAPE).
Combining Petroleum Coke and Natural Gas for Efficient Liquid Fuels Production
Ikenna J Okeke, Thomas A Adams II
August 28, 2018 (v1)
This work explores the technical feasibility and economic profitability of converting petroleum coke (petcoke) and natural gas to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Different petcoke conversion strategies were examined to determine the conversion pathway which can be competitive with current market prices with little or no adverse environmental impacts. Three main design approaches were considered: petcoke gasification only, combined petcoke gasification and natural gas reforming through traditional processing steps, and combined petcoke gasification and natural gas reforming by directly integrating the gasifier’s radiant cooler with the gas reformer. The designs investigated included scenarios with and without carbon capture and sequestration, and with and without CO2 emission tax penalties. The performance metrics considered included net present value, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and the cost of CO2 avoided. The design configuration that integrated natural gas refor... [more]
Combining Biomass, Natural Gas, Carbonless Heat to produce liquid fuels
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A Adams II
August 15, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Biomass, Carbonless Heat, Natural Gas, Polygeneration
In this study, a new Biomass-Gas-Nuclear heat-To-Liquid fuel (BGNTL) process is presented which uses high-temperature nuclear heat as the heat source for steam methane reforming (SMR). This process co-produces liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids, methanol and DME) and power. The BGNTL process was simulated using a combination of different software packages including gPROMS, MATLAB, ProMax, and Aspen Plus. This included the use of a rigorous multi-scale model for the nuclear-heat-powered SMR reactor which was developed in a prior work in gPROMS. Energy efficiency and cradle-to-grave life cycle inventory and life-cycle impact analyses of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were accomplished to analyze the environmental impacts of the BGNTL system. Plant performance was compared with a base case Biomass-Gas-To-Liquid (BGTL) process at the same size. In both processes, a carbon capture and storage (CCS) option is considered. It has been found that both processes result in negative total life... [more]
Aspen Plus Simulation of Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids (BGNTL) Processes (Using CuCl Route)
James Alexander Scott, Thomas Alan Adams II
August 7, 2018 (v1)
These are Aspen Plus simulation files for a Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids chemical plant (a conceptional design), which uses the Copper-Chloride route for hydrogen production. This is a part of a larger work (see linked LAPSE record for pre-print and associated publication in Canadian J Chem Eng). Process sections and major units in this simulation include: Gasification, Integrated-Gasification-Methane-Reforming, Pre-Reforming, Water Gas Shift, Autothermal Reforming, Syngas Blending and Upgrading, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power islands, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Methanol Synthesis, Dimethyl Ether Synthesis, Heat Recovery and Steam Generation, CO2 Compression for Sequestration, Cooling Towers, and various auxiliary units for heat and pressure management. See the linked work for a detailed description of the model.
Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids (BGNTL) Processes Part I: Model Development and Simulation
James Alexander Scott, Thomas Alan Adams II
August 7, 2018 (v1)
New polygeneration processes for the co-production of liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids, methanol, and dimethyl ether) and electricity are presented. The processes use a combination of biomass, natural gas, and nuclear energy as primary energy feeds. Chemical process models were created and used to simulate candidate versions of the process, using combinations of models ranging from complex multi- scale models to standard process flowsheet models. The simulation results are presented for an Ontario, Canada case study to obtain key metrics such as efficiency and product conversions. Sample Aspen Plus files are provided in the supplementary material to be used by others.
Biomass-Gas-and-Nuclear-To-Liquids Aspen Plus Simulations
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A. Adams II
December 7, 2018 (v2)
In this paper, several new processes are proposed which co-generate electricity and liquid fuels (such as diesel, gasoline, or dimethyl ether) from biomass, natural gas and heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This carbonless heat provides the required energy to drive an endothermic steam methane reforming process, which yields H2-rich syngas (H2/CO>6) with lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional steam methane reforming processes. Since downstream Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethyl ether synthesis processes require an H2/CO ratio of around 2, biomass gasification is integrated into the process. Biomass-derived syngas is sufficiently H2-lean such that blending it with the steam methane reforming derived syngas yields a syngas of the appropriate H2/CO ratio of around 2. In a prior work, we also demonstrated that integrating carbonless heat with combined steam and CO2 reforming of methane is a promising option to produce a syngas with proper H2/CO ratio for Fischer... [more]
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