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Records with Keyword: Carbon Dioxide Capture
Techno-Economic Analysis of CO2 Capture Technologies in Offshore Natural Gas Field: Implications to Carbon Capture and Storage in Malaysia
Norhasyima Rahmad Sukor, Abd Halim Shamsuddin, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia, Md Faudzi Mat Isa
May 22, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: carbon capture and storage (CCS), Carbon Dioxide Capture, offshore gas field, Technoeconomic Analysis
Growing concern on global warming directly related to CO2 emissions is steering the implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS). With Malaysia having an estimated 37 Tscfd (Trillion standard cubic feet) of natural gas remains undeveloped in CO2 containing natural gas fields, there is a need to assess the viability of CCS implementation. This study performs a techno-economic analysis for CCS at an offshore natural gas field in Malaysia. The framework includes a gas field model, revenue model, and cost model. A techno-economic spreadsheet consisting of Net Present Value (NPV), Payback Period (PBP), and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is developed over the gas field’s production life of 15 years for four distinctive CO2 capture technologies, which are membrane, chemical absorption, physical absorption, and cryogenics. Results predict that physical absorption solvent (Selexol) as CO2 capture technology is most feasible with IRR of 15% and PBP of 7.94 years. The output from the techno-... [more]
Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment of a Combined Petroleum Coke and Natural Gas to Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Process
Thomas A. Adams II
March 13, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Other
In this study, a well-to-wheels life cycle assessment was conducted to determine the environmental impacts from disposing of petroleum coke by converting it into liquid fuel. Specifically, three processes for converting petroleum coke and natural gas to Fischer Tropsch diesel were investigated, both with and without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Impact categories were calculated using the EPA’s TRACI 2.1 US-Canada 2008 midpoint method in SimaPro software. In addition, the impact of grid emissions on the overall process was assessed using two representative Canadian locations with high (Alberta) and low (Ontario) grid emissions. The results of each impact category were compared among the designs and against conventional petroleum and oil-sands derived diesel. Key findings showed that the proposed designs when operated using CCS in the low-emissions-grid location had lower life cycle GHG emissions than conventional petroleum and oil-sands derived diesel. Nevertheless, the vario... [more]
Screening of Amino Acids and Surfactant as Hydrate Promoter for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas
Jyoti Shanker Pandey, Yousef Jouljamal Daas, Nicolas von Solms
February 12, 2020 (v1)
Keywords: amino acids, Carbon Dioxide Capture, flue gas hydrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate
In this study, the kinetics of flue gas hydrate formation in bulk water in the presence of selected amino acids and surfactants are investigated. Four amino acids (3000 ppm) are selected based on different hydropathy index. Constant-ramping and isothermal experiments at 120 bar pressure and 1 °C temperature are carried out to compare their hydrate promotion capabilities with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (500−3000 ppm) and water. Based on experimental results, we report the correlation between hydrate promotion capability of amino acids and their hydrophobicity. Hydrophobic amino acids show stronger flue gas hydrate promotion capability than water and hydrophilic amino acids. We discuss the controlling mechanisms to differentiate between promoters and inhibitors’ roles among the amino acids. Between 2000−3000 ppm concentrations, hydrophobic amino acids have near similar promotion capabilities as SDS. This research highlights the potential use of amino acids as promoters or in... [more]
Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Measurements of Two Promising Tertiary Amines for CO2 Capture
Diego D. D. Pinto, Znar Zahraee, Vanja Buvik, Ardi Hartono, Hanna K. Knuutila
January 19, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: 12-HEPP, amine, Carbon Dioxide Capture, DEA-12-PD, VLE
Post combustion CO2 capture is still a rather energy intense, and therefore expensive, process. Much of the current research for reducing the process energy requirements is focused on the regeneration section. A good description of the vapor liquid equilibrium of the solvent is necessary for the accurate representation of the process. 3-(Diethylamino)-1,2-propanediol (DEA-12-PD) and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine (12-HEPP) have been proposed as potential components in solvent blends for the membrane contactor. However, there are few available experimental data for these two tertiary amines making difficult to accurate simulate such process. In this work, we provide experimental data on the pure component saturation pressure (383 to 443 K) and on VLE of aqueous solutions of these amines (313 to 373 K) in order to fill part of the data gap. The data were used to estimate model parameters used to represent the data. The saturation pressure was modeled using the Antoine equation and the devi... [more]
Effect of Gas Recycling on the Performance of a Moving Bed Temperature-Swing (MBTSA) Process for CO₂ Capture in a Coal Fired Power Plant Context
Giorgia Mondino, Carlos A. Grande, Richard Blom
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: adsorbents, Carbon Dioxide Capture, gas recycling, gProms, moving bed, post-combustion, process modelling, temperature-swing
A mathematical model of a continuous moving-bed temperature-swing adsorption (MBTSA) process for post-combustion CO₂ capture in a coal-fired power plant context has been developed. Process simulations have been done using single component isotherms and measured gas diffusion parameters of an activated carbon adsorbent. While a simple process configuration with no gas re-circulation gives quite low capture rate and CO₂ purity, 86% and 65%, respectively, more advanced process configurations where some of the captured gas is recirculated to the incoming flue gas drastically increase both the capture rate and CO₂ purity, the best configuration reaching capture rate of 86% and CO₂ purity of 98%. Further improvements can be achieved by using adsorbents with higher CO₂/N₂ selectivity and/or higher temperature of the regeneration section.
Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Interactions between Fe₂O₃/Al₂O₃ and CO
Zhiyong Liang, Wu Qin, Changqing Dong
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, chemical looping combustion (CLC), density functional theory (DFT), iron oxide
The behavior of Fe₂O₃/Al₂O₃ particles as oxygen carriers (OCs) for CO chemical looping combustion (CLC) under different reaction temperatures (700 °C, 800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) were tested in a lab-scale fluidized bed and a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) unit. The results show that the oxygen carrier presents the highest reactivity at 800 °C, even after 30 cycles of redox reaction in a fluidized bed, while more obvious carbon deposition occurred for the case at 700 °C, and agglomeration for the case at 1000 °C. Moreover, the detailed behavior of the prepared Fe₂O₃/Al₂O₃ particle was detected in the TGA apparatus at different reaction temperatures. Furthermore, temperature-programming TGA experiments were performed to investigate the influence of different CO concentrations and CO/CO₂ concentrations on the reaction between CO and OC during the chemical looping combustion processes. Based on these experimental behaviors of the prepared Fe₂O₃/Al₂O₃ during the CLC of CO, the detailed... [more]
Siderite Formation by Mechanochemical and High Pressure−High Temperature Processes for CO2 Capture Using Iron Ore as the Initial Sorbent
Eduin Yesid Mora Mendoza, Armando Sarmiento Santos, Enrique Vera López, Vadym Drozd, Andriy Durygin, Jiuhua Chen, Surendra K. Saxena
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: calcination, Carbon Dioxide Capture, carbonation, carbonation kinetics, iron ore, mechanochemical reactions, recyclability
Iron ore was studied as a CO2 absorbent. Carbonation was carried out by mechanochemical and high temperature−high pressure (HTHP) reactions. Kinetics of the carbonation reactions was studied for the two methods. In the mechanochemical process, it was analyzed as a function of the CO2 pressure and the rotation speed of the planetary ball mill, while in the HTHP process, the kinetics was studied as a function of pressure and temperature. The highest CO2 capture capacities achieved were 3.7341 mmol of CO2/g of sorbent in ball milling (30 bar of CO2 pressure, 400 rpm, 20 h) and 5.4392 mmol of CO2/g of absorbent in HTHP (50 bar of CO2 pressure, 100 °C and 4 h). To overcome the kinetics limitations, water was introduced to all carbonation experiments. The calcination reactions were studied in Argon atmosphere using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Siderite can be decomposed at the same temperature range (100 °C to 420 °C) for the samples... [more]
Technoeconomic Analysis of a Waste Tire to Liquefied Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) energy system
Avinash Shankar Rammohan Subramanian, Thomas A. Adams II, Truls Gundersen
June 1, 2020 (v2)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, Rubber, Synthetic Natural Gas, Waste tire, Waste To Energy
Thermochemical conversion of solid wastes through gasification offers the dual benefit of production of high-value fuels and
environmentally friendly waste disposal. Waste tires in particular may be a suitable feedstock for gasification as a result of their
high energy content (LHV of approximately 34 MJ/kg, higher than coal), high volatile matter content, and low ash content. Rotary
kilns for steam gasification are a promising and technologically mature option to handle such difficult solid wastes that have a
wider range of compositions, particle sizes, and moisture contents. In this paper, we propose a novel process for production of
liquefied synthetic natural gas (SNG) from waste tires. We use experimental data available in the open literature to represent the
complex steam gasification unit operation and study three design cases: Without CCS, with precombustion CCS and with preand postcombustion CCS in two locations: USA and Norway. The thermodynamic, economic and environmen... [more]
Highly Selective CO2 Capture on Waste Polyurethane Foam-Based Activated Carbon
Chao Ge, Dandan Lian, Shaopeng Cui, Jie Gao, Jianjun Lu
November 24, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, high selectivity, physical activation, ultra-micropore, waste polyurethane foam
Low-cost activated carbons were prepared from waste polyurethane foam by physical activation with CO2 for the first time and chemical activation with Ca(OH)2, NaOH, or KOH. The activation conditions were optimized to produce microporous carbons with high CO2 adsorption capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity. The sample prepared by physical activation showed CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 24, much higher than that of chemical activation. This is mainly due to the narrower microporosity and the rich N content produced during the physical activation process. However, physical activation samples showed inferior textural properties compared to chemical activation samples and led to a lower CO2 uptake of 3.37 mmol·g−1 at 273 K. Porous carbons obtained by chemical activation showed a high CO2 uptake of 5.85 mmol·g−1 at 273 K, comparable to the optimum activated carbon materials prepared from other wastes. This is mainly attributed to large volumes of ultra-micropores (<1 nm) up to 0.212 cm3·g−1 and... [more]
Optimization of Post Combustion CO2 Capture from a Combined-Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant via Taguchi Design of Experiment
Ben Alexanda Petrovic, Salman Masoudi Soltani
August 8, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Aspen Plus, Carbon Dioxide Capture, CCGT, Minitab, Optimization, Taguchi
The potential of carbon capture and storage to provide a low carbon fossil-fueled power generation sector that complements the continuously growing renewable sector is becoming ever more apparent. An optimization of a post combustion capture unit employing the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) was carried out using a Taguchi design of experiment to mitigate the parasitic energy demands of the system. An equilibrium-based approach was employed in Aspen Plus to simulate 90% capture of the CO2 emitted from a 600 MW natural gas combined-cycle gas turbine power plant. The effects of varying the inlet flue gas temperature, absorber column operating pressure, amount of exhaust gas recycle, and amine concentration were evaluated using signal to noise ratios and analysis of variance. The optimum levels that minimized the specific energy requirements were a: flue gas temperature = 50 °C; absorber pressure = 1 bar; exhaust gas recirculation = 20% and; amine concentration = 35 wt%, with a relative im... [more]
Systems Design of a Petroleum Coke IGCC Power Plant: Technical, Economic, and Life cycle Perspectives
Ikenna Joseph Okeke, Thomas A Adams II
July 12, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Carbon Dioxide Capture, Electricity, Gasification, IGCC, Life Cycle Analysis, Petroleum Coke
The petroleum coke gasification integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (petcoke-IGCC) is a promising avenue for disposal of the ever-growing amount of stockpiled petroleum coke. In this work, we present a novel techno-economic and life cycle assessment of the process operated with carbon capture and sequestration. The proposed petcoke-to-electricity plant is designed and simulated in Aspen Plus v10. The proposed power plant was compared against coal integrated gasification combined cycle (coal-IGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal power plants operated with carbon capture and sequestration. The results showed that although the efficiency of the coal-IGCC plant is higher than the petcoke-IGCC plant, the higher energy density of the petcoke and lower resource costs were such that the levelized cost of electricity of petcoke-IGCC was lower than coal-IGCC. Furthermore, the feed flow rate of petcoke to the petcoke-IGCC process is approximately 15% lower than the coal feed rate... [more]
Investigation of Pore-Formers to Modify Extrusion-Spheronized CaO-Based Pellets for CO₂ Capture
Zonghao Zhang, Shuai Pi, Donglin He, Changlei Qin, Jingyu Ran
May 16, 2019 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: anti-attrition, calcium looping, Carbon Dioxide Capture, chemical sorption, pore-former particle size
The application of circulating fluidized bed technology in calcium looping (CaL) requires that CaO-based sorbents should be manufactured in the form of spherical pellets. However, the pelletization of powdered sorbents is always hampered by the problem that the mechanical strength of sorbents is improved at the cost of loss in CO₂ sorption performance. To promote both the CO₂ sorption and anti-attrition performance, in this work, four kinds of pore-forming materials were screened and utilized to prepare sorbent pellets via the extrusion-spheronization process. In addition, impacts of the additional content of pore-forming material and their particle sizes were also investigated comprehensively. It was found that the addition of 5 wt.% polyethylene possesses the highest CO₂ capture capacity (0.155 g-CO₂/g-sorbent in the 25th cycle) and mechanical performance of 4.0 N after high-temperature calcination, which were about 14% higher and 25% improved, compared to pure calcium hydrate pellet... [more]
Finding the Signal in the Noise: Determining North America’s best path forward for sustainable energy
Thomas A Adams II
August 1, 2019 (v3)
Keywords: Calcium Looping, Carbon Dioxide Capture, Chemical Looping, Life Cycle Analysis, Meta-Study, Oxyfuels, Postcombustion Capture, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Technoeconomic Analysis
One of the largest engineering challenges of our time is finding technical solutions that permit the use of our energy resources in a sustainable way. In order to achieve meaningful and positive change, new energy systems must adhere to the triple bottom line of sustainability. This means that new technical solutions must be economically, socio-politically, and environmentally sustainable, such that they can be rapidly adopted and accepted. The engineering literature is full of a great many technical proposals for new energy systems, but it turns out to be quite hard to objectively look at them all, see through the hype, and decide which are the best and most promising technologies in which to invest our research and development dollars. In this talk, I will present a case study with the results of our recent meta-study covering over 100 candidate electricity generation systems with carbon dioxide capture, in order to determine which are the most promising classes of technologies. I wi... [more]
Integration of Microalgae-Based Bioenergy Production into a Petrochemical Complex: Techno-Economic Assessment
Ana L. Gonçalves, Maria C. M. Alvim-Ferraz, Fernando G. Martins, Manuel Simões, José C. M. Pires
November 27, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: algal fuels, bioenergy, Carbon Dioxide Capture, microalgal culture, Renewable and Sustainable Energy, wastewater treatment
The rapid development of modern society has resulted in an increased demand for energy, mainly from fossil fuels. The use of this source of energy has led to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in the atmosphere. In this context, microalgae culturing may be an effective solution to reduce the CO₂ concentration in the atmosphere, since these microorganisms can capture CO₂ and, simultaneously, produce bioenergy. This work consists of a techno-economic assessment of a microalgal production facility integrated in a petrochemical complex, in which established infrastructure allows efficient material and energy transport. Seven different scenarios were considered regarding photosynthetic, lipids extraction and anaerobic digestion efficiencies. This analysis has demonstrated six economically viable scenarios able to: (i) reduce CO₂ emissions from a thermoelectric power plant; (ii) treat domestic wastewaters (which were used as culture medium); and (iii) produce lipids and electrical and... [more]
A novel sustainable design for production of liquid fuels
Leila Hoseinzade, Thomas A Adams II
October 30, 2018 (v1)
In this study, a novel biomass-gas-and-nuclear-to-liquids (BGNTL) process is proposed. In this process, nuclear heat is used as the heat source of a steam methane reforming (SMR) process. In a prior work, a rigorous model was developed for the integrated nuclear heat and steam methane reforming process in the gPROMS software package. This model was applied to simulate the integrated nuclear heat and SMR section of BGNTL in Aspen Plus within the other process sections. The BGNTL process was considered for producing different fuels including gasoline & diesel or dimethyl ether (DME). Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is considered as an optional section. The performance of the BGNTL process was compared against a non-nuclear process called biomass-and-gas-to-liquids (BGTL). The efficiency, economics, and environmental impact analyses show that the BGNTL process to produce DME is the most efficient, economic and environmentally friendly process among the considered designs. As a resu... [more]
Combining Petroleum Coke and Natural Gas for Efficient Liquid Fuels Production
Ikenna J Okeke, Thomas A Adams II
August 28, 2018 (v1)
This work explores the technical feasibility and economic profitability of converting petroleum coke (petcoke) and natural gas to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Different petcoke conversion strategies were examined to determine the conversion pathway which can be competitive with current market prices with little or no adverse environmental impacts. Three main design approaches were considered: petcoke gasification only, combined petcoke gasification and natural gas reforming through traditional processing steps, and combined petcoke gasification and natural gas reforming by directly integrating the gasifier’s radiant cooler with the gas reformer. The designs investigated included scenarios with and without carbon capture and sequestration, and with and without CO2 emission tax penalties. The performance metrics considered included net present value, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and the cost of CO2 avoided. The design configuration that integrated natural gas refor... [more]
Structure Manipulation of Carbon Aerogels by Managing Solution Concentration of Precursor and Its Application for CO₂ Capture
Pingping He, Xingchi Qian, Zhaoyang Fei, Qing Liu, Zhuxiu Zhang, Xian Chen, Jihai Tang, Mifen Cui, Xu Qiao
July 31, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Materials
Keywords: carbon aerogels, Carbon Dioxide Capture, concentration, structure manipulation
A series of carbon aerogels were synthesized by polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, and their structure was adjusted by managing solution concentration of precursors. Carbon aerogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N₂ adsorption/desorption and scanning electron microscope (SEM) technologies. It was found that the pore structure and morphology of carbon aerogels can be efficiently manipulated by managing solution concentration. The relative micropore volume of carbon aerogels, defined by Vmicro/Vtol, first increased and then decreased with the increase of solution concentration, leading to the same trend of CO₂ adsorption capacity. Specifically, the CA-45 (the solution concentration of precursors is 45 wt%) sample had the highest CO₂ adsorption capacity (83.71 cm³/g) and the highest selectivity of CO₂/N₂ (53) at 1 bar and 0 °C.
A new approach to the identification of high-potential materials for cost-efficient membrane-based post-combustion CO2 capture
Simon Roussanaly, Rahul Anantharaman, Karl Lindqvist, Brede Hagen
June 22, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Attainable Region, Carbon Dioxide Capture, gas separation membranes, post-combustion, property maps
Developing “good” membrane modules and materials is a key step towards reducing the cost of membrane-based CO2 capture. While this is traditionally being done through incremental development of existing and new materials, this paper presents a new approach to identify membrane materials with a disruptive potential to reduce the cost of CO2 capture for six potential industrial and power generation cases. For each case, this approach first identifies the membrane properties targets required to reach cost-competitiveness and several cost-reduction levels compared to MEA-based CO2 capture, through the evaluation of a wide range of possible membrane properties. These properties targets are then compared to membrane module properties which can be theoretically achieved using 401 polymeric membrane materials, in order to highlight 73 high-potential materials which could be used by membrane development experts to select materials worth pushing towards further development once practical conside... [more]
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