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Records with Keyword: Butanol
Self-Synchronized Oscillatory Metabolism of Clostridium pasteurianum in Continuous Culture
Erin E Johnson, Lars Rehmann
March 12, 2020 (v1)
Subject: Biosystems
Keywords: Butanol, Clostridium, CSTR, glycerol, metabolism, oscillatory, pasteurianum, redox, synchronized
By monitoring the real-time gas production (CO2 and H2) and redox potential at high sampling frequency in continuous culture of Clostridium pasteurianum on glycerol as sole carbohydrate, the self-synchronized oscillatory metabolism was revealed and studied. The oscillations in CO2 and H2 production were in sync with each other and with both redox potential and glycerol in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). There is strong evidence that the mechanism for this is in the regulation of the oxidative pathway of glycerol metabolism, including glycolysis, and points toward complex, concerted cycles of enzyme inhibition and activation by pathway intermediates and/or redox equivalents. The importance of understanding such an “oscillatory metabolism” is for developing a stable and highly productive industrial fermentation process for butanol production, as unstable oscillations are unproductive. It is shown that the oscillatory metabolism can be eradicated and reinstated and that the pe... [more]
Effect of Fuel Injection Strategy on the Carbonaceous Structure Formation and Nanoparticle Emission in a DISI Engine Fuelled with Butanol
Simona Silvia Merola, Adrian Irimescu, Silvana Di Iorio, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
December 10, 2019 (v1)
Keywords: Butanol, direct injection, Gasoline, nanoparticle emissions, optical investigations, spark ignition engine
Within the context of ever wider expansion of direct injection in spark ignition engines, this investigation was aimed at improved understanding of the correlation between fuel injection strategy and emission of nanoparticles. Measurements performed on a wall guided engine allowed identifying the mechanisms involved in the formation of carbonaceous structures during combustion and their evolution in the exhaust line. In-cylinder pressure was recorded in combination with cycle-resolved flame imaging, gaseous emissions and particle size distribution. This complete characterization was performed at three injection phasing settings, with butanol and commercial gasoline. Optical accessibility from below the combustion chamber allowed visualization of diffusive flames induced by fuel deposits; these localized phenomena were correlated to observed changes in engine performance and pollutant species. With gasoline fueling, minor modifications were observed with respect to combustion parameters... [more]
Assessment of feasibility and benefits of replacing bioethanol with biobutanol in the transportation fuels industry
Merissa Wiebe, Thomas Alan Adams II
November 21, 2018 (v1)
Subject: Energy Policy
Keywords: Biobutanol, Butanol, Ethanol, Transportation Fuels
In recent years there has been a strong drive towards transitioning the transportation fuels market to a sustainable alternative. Biofuels has emerged as one of the solutions and is receiving a great deal of focus in research, industry, and politics. Ethanol is currently the most popular biofuel, but butanol has been acknowledged as a superior alternative in several regards. In this paper, the chemical and physical properties of butanol are compared to ethanol and gasoline. In addition, the feasibility of a butanol-based economy is assessed in terms of available supply, compatibility in spark ignition engines in terms of performance and emissions, and ability to easily transport, store, and dispense the fuel. Life cycle assessments of biobutanol are also reviewed, which ultimately suggest that butanol has the potential to be a sustainable alternative. However, the yield of biobutanol production via ABE fermentation, the primary process currently utilized to produce the fuel, is low. Ad... [more]
Techno-economic comparison of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation using various extractants
Giancarlo Dalle Ave, Thomas A. Adams II
June 12, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Acetone, Butanol, Cost of CO2 Emissions Avoided, Ethanol, Extraction, Fermentation, Technoeconomic Analysis
This work compares various chemicals for use as extractants in second-generation Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation on economic and environmental bases. Both non-toxic and toxic extractants are considered in this study. The combinative extractive-distillation separation process was modelled using a combination of Microsoft Excel 2013, MATLAB 2015 and Aspen Plus v8.8. Separation trains were designed and optimized for each extractant to best take advantage of extractant properties. Upstream units considered in this analysis include: biomass (switchgrass) solids processing, biomass pre-treatment and saccharification, and fermentation. Downstream processes considered include utility generation and wastewater treatment. The cost of CO2 equivalent emissions avoided (CCA) was used as the metric to compare the environmental impact of each process as compared to conventional petroleum-based gasoline. The economic and environmental best extractant is shown to be 2-ethyl-hexanol with a minimum... [more]
Techno-economic comparison of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation using various extractants
Giancarlo Dalle Ave, Thomas A. Adams II
June 12, 2018 (v1)
Keywords: Acetone, Butanol, Cost of CO2 Emissions Avoided, Ethanol, Extraction, Fermentation, Technoeconomic Analysis
This work compares various chemicals for use as extractants in second-generation Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation on economic and environmental bases. Both non-toxic and toxic extractants are considered in this study. The combinative extractive-distillation separation process was modelled using a combination of Microsoft Excel 2013, MATLAB 2015 and Aspen Plus v8.8. Separation trains were designed and optimized for each extractant to best take advantage of extractant properties. Upstream units considered in this analysis include: biomass (switchgrass) solids processing, biomass pre-treatment and saccharification, and fermentation. Downstream processes considered include utility generation and wastewater treatment. The cost of CO2 equivalent emissions avoided (CCA) was used as the metric to compare the environmental impact of each process as compared to conventional petroleum-based gasoline. The economic and environmental best extractant is shown to be 2-ethyl-hexanol with a minimum... [more]
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